It’s my BIRTHDAY

Od’odun la nr’orogbo, od’odun la nr’awusa, od’odun la nr’omo obi l’ori ate,
Ojo ibi odun yi, terin teye lo maa je fun mi.

O

nly God is worthy of all my praises and adoration today, he gave me peace in times of troubles, soothes my pain, put a smile on my face during my sad days and also gave me sunshine in my cloudy days.

Igba Odun, odun kan ni o.

Happy birthday to me. 🎂🥂🎉

THE ODUDUWAN REVOLUTION

Since the Nubians were descended or colonized by the Egyptians, the Ijebu, and by extension, all Yoruba customs, derived from the Egyptian.

Many traditional Yorubas have always claimed Egypt as their place of original abode, and that their monarchical tradition derives from the Egyptians.

Yorubas left Egypt as a result of a big war that engulfed the whole of Egypt. The Egyptian remnants settled in various places, two important places being Ode Itsekiri and Ile-Ife. Oral tradition has it also that when the Yorubas came from South of Egypt they did not go straight to where they now occupy. They settled at Illushi, some at Olukumi Ukwunzu while some settled at Ode-Itsekiri.

Since these oral traditions are passed on by very illiterate people, we can augment whatever is recorded with written sources. Concerning the migration of some of the Yoruban ancestors from the east, Conton says: The Yoruba left their fertile lands, for reasons which we can not now discover and joined in the ceaseless movement of tribes west wards and south-wards across our continent.

They were Negro people of ancient Egypt and that one of the many princely states they founded on their arrival in West Africa was Ife. While the ancient Egyptians were pure Negroes.

Impressed by the similarities between Yoruba and ancient Egyptian culture – religious observation, works of art, burial and other customs – speak of a possible migration of the ancestors of the Yoruba from the upper Nile (as early as 2000BC – 1000BC) as a result of some upheavals in ancient Egypt. He also pinpoints the cause for the Yoruban migration – war.

The Yoruba history begins with the migration of an east African population across the trans-African route leading from Mid-Nile river area to the Mid-Niger. The Nigerian region was inhabited more than forty thousand years ago, or as far back as 65,000BC. During this period, the Nok culture occupied the region. The Nok culture was visited by the “Yoruba people”, between 2000BC and 500BC. This group of people was led, according to Yoruba historical accounts by Oduduwa, who settled peacefully in the already established Ile-Ife, the sacred city of the indigenous Nok people.

This time period is known as the Bronze Age, a time of high civilization of both of these groups. The Yoruba, during antiquity, lived in ancient Egypt before migrating to the Atlantic coast. Thus, the similarity or identity of languages, religious beliefs, customs and names of persons, places and things. In addition, many ancient papyri discovered by archaeologists point at an Egyptian origin. (Tariqh Sawandi: Yorubic medicine: The Art of divine herbology – online article).

Some words in the Yoruban vocabulary echo the words used in Egypt in predynastic times and in the early dynastic periods. Some Egyptian gods of this period have strong identities with Yoruban deities. For instance, gods such as Adumu (Adumu) Hepi (Ipi) Ausar (Ausa), Horise (Orise), and Sámi (Sámi) Nam (Inama) are present in Yoruba. All these gods existed in the pre-dynastic and early dynastic periods of Egypt.

TODAY, AMONG THE ITSEKIRI – YORUBAS, THESE GODS CAN STILL BE PHYSICALLY SEEN, AT LEAST, ONCE A YEAR.

Neighboring communities are already initiated into the various gods systems and beliefs in yorubaland.

There are words that existed in the Graeco-Roman period in some of the Yoruban dialects. When the Romans took over Egypt, they infiltrated the Egyptian area with their language. In present Yoruba, we can still find words of Roman descent. For instance, the Yoruba called the palm frond ‘Mariwo’. This word is derived form the Latin Rivus (River). One of the declensions of river is Rivo (by the river).Since the Yoruban possesses no “V”, the word become riwo. Thus, the word “Omariwo” means the child by the river. Some other words like Sangi (blood in Itsekiri-yoruba dialect) thought to have been derived form the Portuguese were actually brought as a result of the Roman Conquest of Egypt. Sangi is blood and the Latin term is Sanguis. Some eastern Yoruba use the term “Ihagi” which is clearly a corruption of the Roman Sanguis. A Christian army in 540AD invaded Egypt and some persons believed to have reached Yoruba land were driven from Egypt.

With the commencement of the Arab period in Egypt, some indigenous Egyptians who never wanted to accept the Islamic religion escaped to present Yoruba land. It was probably in this period that words such as Keferi (Kafri pagan in Arab) infiltrated into the Yoruboid vocabulary.

All said and done, more than fifty percent of the Yoruboid vocabulary of today can be deduced either directly or indirectly from the ancient Egyptian. These are the original ancient Egyptian language devoid of Arab and Latin words that are very few in the Yoruboid vocabulary

It is not really certain when king Oduduwa came from Egypt. He must have come in one of the many migrations. But since the Yoruba religious discourse has a lot of identities with Egyptian, Oduduwa would have left Egypt at a very early period perhaps after the Hyksos invasion of 2000-1500BC, but not later than 30BC.

PROOFS OF EGYPTIAN NEGRONESS

1. Egypt was a part of Africa and therefore should be black
2. The Egyptians believe that Egypt was a colony of Ethiopia, and that the religion was brought to Egypt by King Horus from the south (inner Africa). Thus when the Egyptians died, they buried their corpses with their faces facing the South West (the direction of West Africa, home of the Yoruba)
3. Some West African peoples claim that their ancestors migrated to ancient Egypt. The Yorubas claimed that a mystic-prophet Orunmila (Oritse Udeji among the Itsekiri) migrated to Egypt and established a religion. Archaeology and cross-cultural studies have shown that Negroes migrated from West Africa to ancient Egypt.
4. Anthropologists have discovered, to their dismay, that Egyptian cultural traits: divine kingship, forms of burial, Osirian cult, etc., permeate some parts of Negro Africa.
5. Some deities exist in Egypt and in Negro Africa, such as Adumu, Hepi, Inama, Sami Horise etc.
6. The Greeks referred to the Egyptian as “Hoi Aiguptos”, (black people); the Egyptians referred to themselves as Kam (black in their language.)
7. Melanin test proved that the Egyptians were black.
8. Osteological measurements which are less misleading than craniometry in distinguishing a black man from a white man has proved that the ancient Egyptians belonged to the black race. Lepsius, a German Savant at the end of the nineteenth century, made the studies and his conclusion remains valid. Future studies have not contradicted the “Lepsius canon”, which in broad figures gave the bodily proportion of the ideal Egyptian: short armed and of Negroid or Negrito physical type.
9. Most West African claim Egyptian ancestry. If they are black, their ancient Egyptian ancestors must be black.
10. Ancient paintings on caves and temples in Egypt depict blacks. At first there were only black paintings, in later times, the blacks were shown ruling over whites and yellows (Asians).
11. Ancient statues and carvings found in Upper and Lower Egypt showed black skins, and features.
12. Ancient monuments such as the pyramid have been replicated in other parts of Africa. A typical example is the Warri pyramid recorded in Roth (1671).
13. Language similarities exist between the Egyptians and some groups in west Africa such as the Wolof and particularly more so, the Yorubas ( more then 500 similar words have been discovered bearing identical meanings. See Yoruba is Atlantis by the same authors: to be published).
14. Recent findings of Genetics and Molecular Biology and Linear Analysis have proved the Egyptians were Negroid.
15. The testimony of classical writers such as Plato, Homer, Aristotle, Pythagoras etc., portrays the Egyptians as blacks.
16. the physical photograph of Yuyi of ancient Egypt is Negroid (Barbara Mertz : Red Land ,Black land: 1967)

The Egyptian religion and other cultural practices show strong Yorubic characteristics. These can be seen in the following areas:
1. The lost wax method of brass or bronze making, which was common to both the Yoruba peoples (particular Ife) and the ancient Egyptians.
2. The ritual of initiation
3. Striving to achieve the ultimate in “Good” and truth (summun bonum)
4. The doctrine of transmigration of soul and reincarnation is widely believed in, by both peoples.
5. The concept of the ‘god king’.
6. Aspiration to achieve the great ‘good’ of the gods – ‘wealth health and long life’.
7. The Yorubic regalia, in most cases, are strikingly similar to pharoanic ones.
8. Veneration of the Ram in both places. Among the eastern Yorubas (Itsekiri especially, most of the water deities are depicted as ram following the predynastic and pharoanic patterns).
9. Both peoples answer the theophorous names.

LINGUISTIC SIMILARITIES

The surest way to prove a cultural contact between peoples is to adduce linguistic evidence

One of the largest inhabitants of Egypt were Yoruboid , and it will be expected that a good percentage of their language will be yoruboid too. See the table below.

EGYPT YORUBA
1. Wu (rise) Wu (rise)
2. Ausa (Osiris, father of the gods) Ausa (father)
3. Ere (python/ Serpent) Ere (Python / Serpent)
4. Horise (a great god) Orise (a great god)
5. Sen (group of worshippers) Sen ( to worship)
6. Ged (to chant) Igede (a chant)
7. Ta (sell / offer) Ta (sell/offer)
8. Sueg (a fool) Suegbe (a fool)
9. On ( living person) One ( living person)
10. Kum (a club) Kumo( a club)
11. Enru (fear / terrible) Eru (fear / terrible
12. Kun / qun (brave man) Ekun (title of a brave man)
13. Win (to be) Wino (to be)
14. Odonit (festival) Odon (festival)
15. Ma or mi (to breath) Mi. (to breathe)
16. Tebu (a town) Tebu (a town)
17. Adumu (a water god) Adumu (a water god)
18. Khu (to kill) Ku (die)
19. Rekha (knowledge} Larikha (knowledge)
20 Hika (evil) Ika (evil)
21 Mhebi (humble) Mebi (humble to ones family)
22 Sata (perfect) Santan (perfect)
23 Unas (lake of fire) Una (fire)
24 Tan (complete) Tan (complete)
25 Beru (force of emotion) Beru (fear)
26 Em (smell) Emi (smell)
27 Pa (open) Pa (break open)
28 Bi (to become) Bi (to give birth, to become)
29 Hepi (a water god) Ipi (a water god)
30 Sami (water god) Sami (a water god)
31 Osiri (a water god) Oshiri (a water god)
32 Heqet – Re (frog deity) Ekere (the frog)
33 Feh (to go away) Feh (to blow away)
34 Kot (build) Ko (build)
35 Kot (boat) Oko (boat)
36 Omi (water) Omi (water)
37 Ra (time) Ira (time)
38 Oni (title of Osiris) Oni (title of the king of Ife)
39 Budo (dwelling place) Budo (dwelling place)
40 Dudu (black image of Osiris) Dudu (black person)
41 Un (living person) Una (living person)
42 Ra (possess) Ra (possess/buy)
43 Beka (pray/confess) Be or ka (to pray or confess)
44 Po (many) Po (many/cheap)
45 Horuw (head) middle Egyptian Oruwo (head) (Ijebu)
46 Min (a god) Emin (spirit)
47 Ash (invocation) Ashe (invocation)
48 Aru (mouth) Arun (mouth ) Ilaje
49 Do (river) Odo (river)
50 Do (settlement) Udo (settlement)
51 Shekiri (water god) Shekiri (a water god)
52 Bu (a place) Bu ,a place
53 Khepara (beetle Akpakara (beetle)
54 No (a water god Eno (a water god)
55 Ra -Shu (light after darkness Uran-shu (the light of the moon
56 Run-ka (spirit name) Oruko (name)
57 Deb/dib to pierce Dibi (to pierce)
58 Maat (goddess of justice Mate (goddess of justice)
59 Aru (rise) Ru (rise up)
60 Fa (carry) Fa (pull)
61 Kaf (pluck) Ka (pluck)
62 Bu bi (evil place) Bubi (evil place)
63 In- n (negation In-n (negation)
64 Iset (a water god) Ise (a water god)
65 Shabu (watcher) Ashonbo (watcher)
66 Semati (door keeper) Sema (lock/shut the door)
67 Khenti amenti (big words of Osiris Yenti – yenti (big, very big)
68 Ma (to know) Ma (to know)
69 Bebi, a son of osiris) Ube, a god
70 Tchatcha chief (they examined the death to see if they tricked tsatsa (a game of tricks, gambling )
71 Ren( animal foot) Ren (to walk)
72 Ka (rest) Ka (rest/tired)
73 Mu (water) Mu (drink water)
74 Abi (against) Ubi (against / impediment)
75 Reti (to beseech) Retin (to listen)
76 Hir (praise) Yiri (praise)
77 Ta(spread out) Ta (spread out)
78 Kurud (round) Kurudu (round)
79 Ak – male Ako (male)
80 Se – to create Se (to create)
81 Hoo (rejoice) Yo (rejoice)
82 Kamwr (black) Kuru (extremely black
83 Omitjener (deep water) Omijen (deep water)
84 Nen, the primeval water mother) Nene (mother
85 Ta (land) Ita (land junction)
86 Horiwo (head) Oriwo (head)
87 Ro (talk) Ro (to think)
88 Kurubu (round) Kurubu (deep and round)
89 Penka (divide) Kpen (divide)
90 Ma-su (to mould) Ma or su (to mould)
91 Osa (time) Osa (time)
92 Osa (tide) Osa ( tide)
93 Fare (wrap) Fari (wrap)
94 Kom (complete) Kon (complete)
95 Edjo (cobra) Edjo (cobra)
96 Didi (red fruit) Diden (red)
97 Ba (soul) Oba (king) soul of a people
98 Ke (hill) Oke( hill
99 Anubis (evil deity) Onubi (evil person)
100 Kan (one: Middle Egyptian) Okan one)
101 Nam (water god) Inama (water god)

The words above are used to show that most Yoruban words are identical to the ancient Egyptian.

BINIS: THE ODUDUWAN LEGACY

THE PERSONALITY OF “ODUDUWA”

The personality of Ikaladeran; whether he was the man who later became Oduduwa will be scientifically analyzed

Oduduwa is the founder of the Yoruba monarchical system, or at least, a founder of a prominent dynasty in Yoruba history. There must have been many dynasties in Ife, as Ife legends put pre-Oduduwa monarchs at more than ninety.

The personality of Oduduwa has suffered many attacks in recent times. The Binis claim he was a Benin prince (Ekaladerhan), who later became Imadoduwa or Izoduwa, and then Oduduwa. The Igbos claim he was an Igbo man from Nri. Some Igalas claim he hailed from Igala land. The Igalas have many Ifes, and they claim Oduduwa was from one of such Ifes. The Igala language is close enough to the Yoruba, to assert a common origin for both peoples.

The present writers are holding the following positions:
1. The Yorubas are aborigines or autochthonous to their present environment;
2. The monarchical structure seems to be alien. The present writers tend to place the origin of the Yoruba monarchy in ancient Egypt and Nubia. This is because a lot of Egyptian related relics, words and practices can still be discerned among the Yorubas, particularly among the following: Ife (where the Ifa oracle and Yoruba monarchical system blossomed); Ijebu (with some ancient settlements; Ijebu Ode, the seat of the Awujale, Ode, the seat of Lenuwa, in present day Ogun Water side Local Government, Oke-Eri, purported to be the home of the biblical queen of Sheba, called Bilikisu in Ijebu legends), Ugbo, the ancient city of the Ilajes, Idanre (the home of Ogun, the god of iron), all show some similarities and identities in their monarchical and religious authorities.Basil Davidson, Olumide Lucas, Tariqh Sawandi, and even the present Awujale of Ijebu land, have pointed to ancient Egypt or Nubia as the origin of Yoruba monarchical system. All the above have used the similarities or the identities of cultural practices to substantiate their claims.

If the Yorubas left the Egyptian or the Nubian axis, they must have left during turbulent periods of war, economic stagnation or religious persecution. Thus, we shall examine the periods of upheavals in black Egypt and black Nubia; and examine when the Yoruban aristocracy descended from the Nile valley. They may not be one migration, but several migrations and the personality called Oduduwa, must have led one of the various migrations.

The first crop of migrants or southward push of the Egyptians took place about 2000BC – 500BC. The Hyksos invasion (2000-1500BC) caused some of these southward migrations. Many of the black Egyptians seemed to have moved to Yoruba land during this period. .

The second wave of migrations will correspond to what Laoye Sanda, of the department of Public Administration,The Polytechnic,Ibadan refers to as the black Nubian emigrants. The Nubians were black, they occupied present day Sudan, which was an integral part of the Egyptian Empire. The vocabulary, body scarification, and religious discourse resemble those of the Ijebus and more so, the Itsekiri. The 1984 Awujale’s coronation manual will make this manifest. These migrations occurred about 500BC.

A third wave of migration took place between 90BC and 30BC. The present writers feel the personality called Oduduwa, came in that migration trend.

A fourth migration will correspond to the Christian conquest of Egypt, about 100AD.

The last wave of migration will correspond to the Arab enforced emigration, between 700AD – 1100AD, when the Arabs had consolidated their control over Egypt; they chased the last batch of traditional worshipping Egyptians from Egypt. This occurrence would have led to many Yoruba claiming that their ancestors were chased from somewhere in the Middle East for not accepting Islam.

The proof of archaeology

There has been a dearth of archaeological researches in Nigeria. Whatever research has been done is not final, for new finds can be found in future.

The most ancient archaeological finds in Nigeria are the following: (1) the relic at Iwo Eleru (with a radio carbon date of about 12,000BC). Iwo Eleru is close to Akure, Ondo State. (2) The findings at Igbo-Ukwu of about 6000BC. (3) The findings at the Mejiro cave near Oyo (about 4000BC). The Nok culture that is more than 1000BC. (4) The Oke-Eri walls and graves purported to be more than a thousand years. The walls are reputed to be the biggest in the world, but for the walls of China. (5) The bronze heads at Ife about 1000AD. (6) The bronze heads at Benin about 1400AD. This might authenticate the Ife claim that the Binis got the civilization of bronze casting from the Ifes. Both the Binis and the Ifes claim that Igueghae was the one who taught the Binis how to cast bronze, during the reign of the Oba Oguola, fourth king from Eweka, the son of Oramiyan, a distant descendant of Oduduwa from Ife.

THE LINGUISTIC LINKAGES

According to the studies of philology and etymology, most of the languages in Nigeria in the Kwa group of languages have a meeting point. The Yorubas and Idoma separated some six thousand years ago; while the Yoruba and Igalas separated about 2 thousand years ago; two thousand years ago corresponds to the time that the Yoruba dialects: Ekiti, Ijebu, Oyo, Itsekiri, Ilaje, Ikale etc started having distinct dialectical identities.

Linguistic studies have indicated that Yorubas in the Eastern Flanks of the Yoruba nation; Ekiti, Yagba, Kabba, Owo, Ijebu, Itsekiri and to some extent the Ifes, speak the most ancient Yoruba dialects. Glottochronological studies have shown that the dialects in the south east are more ancient than those of central Yoruba land and western Yoruba land. The table displays it further still.

A table showing east to west ancientness of the Yoruboid languages.

ENGLISH ITSEKIRI YORUBA OYO – YORUBA
RESPECT OGHO OWO
MONEY OGHO OWO
LOOK GHO WO
SAY GIN WI
FORBID GHO( r ) WO( r )
THEM AGHAN AWON

The table shows that the Itsekiri dialect retains the more ancient “gh” or “g” guttural sound to the more liquid “w” of the Oyos.

If it is taken that the Yoruban ruling class came from Egypt, the southern Yoruba block, particularly the Itsekiri, would have served as an initial stopping point and a secondary course of dispersal. The table displays it further still

EGYPTIAN ITSEKIRI-YORUBA OYO-YORUBA
ADUMU (Water god) ADUMU (Water god) ADAMU (A god)
Kuku (Darkness) Okuku (Darkness) Ouku (Darkness)
Dudu (Black Image of Osiris) Dudu (black ) Dudu ( black )
Omi (Water) Omi (Water) Omi (Water)
Heket-Re (Frog god) Ekere (Frog) Akere (Frog)
Horise (Sky god) Orise (Sky god) Orisa (A god)
Hika (Evil) Ika (Evil) Ika (Evil)
Shu (Evil god) Eshu (Evil god) Eshu (Evil god)
Co-opted from 500 word-word correlation between, Yoruba and Egyptian languages .

From the above, it means that the eastern Yoruba blocs such as the Itsekiri, Ilaje, Ijebu and the Owo are more cognate with the Egyptian than those of Oyo or Ife. .

The Awujale has testified that the Itsekiri are speaking the original Ijebu dialect. . This is why Bolaji Idowu derived the origin of Oritse to the Itsekiri-Owo axis within the eastern Yoruba kingdoms…

It is proper here to state that the word “Orise” is almost cognate with the Egyptian, Horise. Both deities represent very high gods.. Both deities were first water divinities before they became sky or heavenly divinities. Both words are derived from identical etymological origins. Hori(Ori) means head in both places. “Se”, means a source in both places. Thus both words mean a source of creation in both places. This type of linguistic similarity or identity cannot have arisen by mere accident – there was a concrete historical intercourse. The Binis call God Oyisa, a corruption of the eastern Yoruba form. This is certain because the Binis cannot derive the meaning of Oyisa by breaking the word into morphemes as the Yoruba can display, or draw up any identity with ancient Egypt.

A SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE MYTHS

1. Oduduwa – The myth of Oduduwa seems to be valid. Minus the fact that many Yoruba claim descent from Oduduwa, some Urhobos and even Ijaws also claim descent from Oduduwa.
2. Ekaladerhan – This name exists in very little, if at all it exists, in the oral tradition of any of the Bini neighbors. There has been no relevant oral tradition among any of the circumjacent peoples that can recognize Ekaladerhan or identify him as Oduduwa. So, the Ife claim concerning Oduduwa seems to be more tenable.
3. Oduduwa’s descent from heaven – The Ife’s have been totally embarrassed by the invectives thrown on them by the Binis in their I claim that Oduduwa fell from the sky.

Yes! It is true. People can fall from the sky as modern interaction between earthmen and those from other planets have authenticated, and this can be displayed both in mythology and in real hardcore science in many parts of the world. The story of Ezekiel in the bible, the story of the Dogon mystic tribe of Mali are cases in point.

Then, some Yoruba ancestors would have been some of the Umales (aborigines) using their Umale-Olunas (spaceships) to travel across the universe, as this can still be sighted in Yoruba land today.
4. The huge bodies of water which the Bini and Yoruba mythologies claim their ancestors landed, would have been one of two waters (1) the Atlantic ocean, the home of Umale-Okun at the coastal flanks of Yoruba land , or the Mediterranean which was the biggest body of water known to the ancient Negro Egyptians.

BINI AND EASTERN YORUBA HISTORICAL LINKAGES
– The Monarchies

There are areas where the eastern Yorubas and the Binis have a lot of historical linkages. It is an indisputable fact that the founder of the present Itsekiri dynasty was Ginuwa, the first son of Oba Olua of Benin. The Binis ruled over most parts of Ondo state: Akure and Ode-Ondo, to be more specific. They even established dynasties in some of these places, including Owo. There are a lot of titles that the Eastern Yorubas derived from the Binis. Those titles include: Ologbotsere, Iyatsere, Otsodin, Olisan (Oliha) etc. There are also many areas where the Binis are indebted to the Eastern Yorubas. Many of these have not been given prominence by historians. But the more we delve into History, the more we are convinced of Binis indebtedness to the Yorubas, particularly the Itsekiri-yorubas. Some of this indebtedness are the Bini religious discourse, the conquest of Lagos, the manufacture of salt etc.

THE CONQUEST OF LAGOS
On face value, the Lagos conquest seemed to have been done by the Binis. Many authorities however, agree that it is the Itsekiri of Warri that served in the Navy that attacked Lagos. The assertion is likely to be true because of the following (1) The Binis are not watermen and could not easily travel on the lagoons to Lagos. (2) The name ‘Olu’ is common among Lagos Obas eg. The Olu of Ikeja, the Olu Eko of Eko (Eleko) etc. The name ‘Olu’ is Itsekiri or Oyo-yoruba and not Edo or Bini (3) The Eyo masquerade attire and dance style is similar to that of Awankere of Warri. It is true that the Eyo masquerade originated in Ijebu, but the attire is purely of Warri origin. This will authenticate a not-too-popular Okere(Warri) legend, that it was the descendants of Ekpen that accompanied Orhogbua (Osogbua) to conquer Lagos. .

. Also, the drums used by the Awori people bear striking resemblance to the Itsekiri drums, but bear no resemblance to the Bini drums. In summary, the material culture of the Aworis is far more akin to the Itsekiri than to the Binis.

Now hear the authorities: Captain Leonard says; “Of the Jekri (Itsekiri) also there is much more definite, although to a certain extent contradictory evidence. According to one account, they are said to be closely connected with the Yoruba, the Warri kingdom having extended to and embraced Lagos as well as some of the surrounding territories to this day (1906), in fact, Jekri inhabit the strip of country, along the coast from the Benin river westward to Lagos” This might be due to the fact that Itsekiri held most of the trading posts along the coast when Leonard was writing.

Captain Leonard in another section of his work says: “And from all accounts, it is more than possible, if not evident that the army of warriors who founded Lagos proceeded in reality from Warri, but doubtless by the command of the king of Benin”.

.

Corroborating Leonard and Nirven that the Itsekiri aristocracy has at least some politico-economic interests in Lagos, H. Ling Roth says “Such corals as the Binis had, were obtained through Jekri traders either from the Benin River or Lagos”.

ORIGIN OF BINI BEADS

The Itsekiri have always claimed that beads started with them and that the Binis got their beads from them. Settlements such as Omadino, Inorin, Ureju and Korobe area of the Warri kingdom are the ancient Itsekiri settlements with the bead industry.

The people of Ureju and Korobe in Koko claimed to have given Ogboruware (Ewuare), probably a usurper to the Bini throne, beads for the first time. There is a legend among the Korobes, that Ogboruware (Ewuare), had his swelling disease as a result of an affliction placed on him by Korobe, a legendary spiritual woman. Now hear the authorities:

H Ling Roth says

According to Bold, coral beads, “are the intrinsic treasures of the rich, being held in highest estimation and from their rarity, are only in the hands of a few chiefs, whose avidity for them is immeasurable, the species admired are the pipe beads of various dimensions and are valued at ten large jars of oil an ounce, of the smaller sort, and so on in the proportion for the larger sized”. Mr. Punch informs me that “as a matter of fact, the king of Benin had few, if any of the large coral beads such as Nanna, Dore, Dudu and Jekri chiefs obtained from the merchants in the Benin River. His coral was insignificant pipe agate and was only significant when made up into vests and hats. The Benin value more the agate beads and especially the dull agate was a king’s gift and no one could wear such a necklet unless it was given to him by the king. It was death in fact, to wear it otherwise. The shiny crystalline agate, with white quartz, anyone could wear. Such corals as the Binis had were obtained through Jeiri traders, either from the Benin river or Lagos. The Binis said it was dug up at the back of Benin but everything in the days I am speaking 14 – 15 years ago (from 1898) which was at all mysterious came from the back of Benin .

Eve de Negri says,

“This coral was first discovered (so it is told) during the fifteenth century in the reign of Oba Ewuare. This type of coral was obtained from a tree, growing on the sandy bank of the Benin River”.

PC llyod also commented that Itsekiri legends claim that their ancestors, the Umales, got the blue corals from particular trees that were growing in the Jekri country.

from the above quotations, it is evident that the Benin got their beads from the Itsekiri, and the Itsekiri legends that they gave beads to Oba Ogboruware (Eware), has to be positively examined by scientific historians.

BINIS LEARNT ABOUT SALT FROM THE ITSEKIRI
The Binis are land-bound people and they know very little about salt. Itsekiri legends testify that they gave salt to Binis for the first time

The Itsekiri are known as the manufacturers of salt.. Alagoa, H Ling Roth, and Obaro Ikime, agree to this position. H. Ling reports,

“According to Roupel’s officials, king Osogbua (Orhogbua) is credited with discovering salt in the Jekiri country”. Pg. 142.H Ling Roth Great Benin

It is now factual that Orhogba discovered salt when he came to the Jekiri (Itsekiri) country to seek the assistance of the Itsekiri navy in order to attack Lagos. In 1818 they also sought the assistance of Kaye, an Itsekiri mystic-warrior in order to attack Akure. He was given Ologbo some 25 kilometres south of Benin city.

The itsekiri were the major salt producers in the Niger delta area. On this hear Alagoa: “the itsekiri supplied clay pots to to such Ijo communities as the Gbaramatu and Bassan, and and also sold salt to traders from eastern delta who took it up the Niger………Other Ijo exchanged dried fish and salt ,which was manufactured by the Itsekiri ,with the Urhobo ,Isoko and Igbo groups along the periphery of the Niger Delta and along the Lower Niger” (Alagoa 1989:729)

WATER RELIGION OF THE BINIS

The cult of Olokun (the water religion) of the Binis seems to be purely alien. This is due to the following reasons: (1) the Binis are a land based people. Their main occupations are; farming, hunting and sculpture. So it will be unthinkable for the Binis to have a water religion as a major cult. (2) If a water religion exists among the Binis, and it has become prominent, the Binis might have copied from one of their riverine neighbors (3) these neighbours are the Ijaws, the Itsekiris, the Ilajes, and more distant neighbours being, the Asabas, the Onitshas, the Afenmai or Igala people around the river Niger.

The Afenmais and the Igalas seem too distant from Benin to have a good influence on them. The Asabas and the Onitshas, also, seem to be too far away form Benin. Minus that, they don’t seem to have any serious water cult to influence the Binis to have a viable water religion.

Thus, the Bini (a land locked people) must have had their water religion from the Ijaws, the Itsekiris or the Ilajes. The Bini religious discourse has nothing to do with the Ijaws. Besides that, the Ijaws that are the immediate neighbours of the Binis did not have any significant civilization. These Ijaw neighbours are the Egbemas, the Arogbos, the Apois–now Yoruba-speaking–the Ogbe-Ijohs, the Isabas, the Gbaramatus, the Ogulaghas, the Oburutus, and the Meins. No significant civilization or kingdom has emerged from these Ijaw clans. E.J Alagoa asserted that most of these Ijaws did not arrive their area by 1500, which is quite recent according to historical chronology. The cases settled in the Supreme Court between the Ijaws and the Itsekiri; place the date of Ijaws coming to these areas at the early 19th century. Now, hear Prof.Alagoa , an Ijaw doyen of history:

“Pereira’s record suggests that those Ijo groups now living west of the Forcados and east of the Bonny had not yet arrived at their present territory by 1500”. Thus, it is unthinkable for the Binis to have copied the water religion from the Ijaws.

The Itsekiri and the Ilajes receive the likelihoodof having given water religion to the Binis for the following reasons:1)The Binis situate the home of Olokun, the god of the sea, in the Atlantic Ocean. Both the Itsekiris and the Ilajes are in the Atlantic coast. (2) The Bini religious discourse shows a strong Yoruba affinity. The name, Olokun, (Olu Okun) is an eastern Yoruba name that can apply to the Itsekiri as well as Ilajes, as eastern Yoruba dialects. The Binis call God Osa, which is the same word that the Itsekiri call father. The other Bini word for God, Oyise, is clearly corruption of the much older Itsekiri name, Oritse. . In the early days of November 2004 , the Bini Monarch invoked an Ilaje deity, Aiyelala, to recover some property that was stolen from the Oba Market in Benin . This will authenticate the Ilaje story of the Binis coming to Ugbo once every year to serve Umaleokun, the water god of the Ugbo Yoruba
H. Ling Roth went further, quoting Burton says:

“Similar to other west Africans, the Bini When drinking,the Binis always pour a few drops upon the ground, muttering the while (Mobia, Malaku Mobia (Mobie, Umalokun, Mobie) – Ibeg, O Malaku (Umale-Okun, fetish guardian of lands and waters 1 beg of thee to defend me against all evil, to defeat and destroy all my foes”. This said, a broken bittock of Kola (stercula acuminata) is thrown upon the ground, and is watered with a few drops of palm wine.” Burton Pg. 281. Mobia (Mobie) is however the Jekiri for “1 beg you : 59.

It is evident that the Bini religious discourse was, and to some extent is, still infiltrated with Itsekiri and Ilaje. This is most evident in the water religion of the Binis.

From the above, we see that some of the most important aspects of the Bini civilization: their bead industry, the cult of Olokun (Olu Okun – King of the sea), their salt industry etc are from the eastern Yoruba land of Itsekiri and to some extent the Ilajes. Apart from this, the Itsekiri warrior, Ikaye, saved the Bini kingdom from being crushed by the Akures. For his settlement Oba Semede gave him Ologbo.
Again when there was leadership dispute between Obaseki and Aigwobasinwin, it was an Itsekiri chief, Dore Numa, who restored the Benin monarchy. He also gave them a lot of beads which the Bini aristocracy has not returned till today. It is therefore unthinkable that Ife, where the Yoruba kingship blossomed, would have copied from Benin. This is most evident when we consider the following facts: (I) The name, Oba (the Edo word for king), is copied from the Yorubas, particularly those from Ife (2) the heads of the Obas of Benin were taken to Ife, until very recently. The place where the heads of the Obas of Benin were buried is still called “Orun Oba Ado”, “the heaven of the kings of Benin”. (3) The Binis normally take permission from the Ooni, to crown new kings. There is no recorded history that the Oonis took permission from the Binis before getting crowned (4) The official language in the court of the Oba of Benin until 1934 was Yoruba. There was no time that Bini language was spoken in Ife. The Portuguese and other Europeans who were in the Bini area for more than 500 years (from 1486 when they got to Benin till 1960.)had no knowledge of Oduduwa being a Bini man.

So, scientifically speaking, the Ife position seems more tenable than that of the Benin. Oral traditions can be fabricated. So, rigorous history of the 21st century must be purely scientific – even if we recourse to oral tradition, they must face scientific testing and not based on moribund oral tradition. Aspects such as linguistic analysis, archaeological discoveries, cultural practices etc, must come into the forefront when reconstructing the history of preliterate peoples like the Binis and the Ifes.
THE EDOS ARE DESCENDED FROM THE IRIGBO OF ODE_ITSEKIRI
In one of their accounts, the Edos claim discent from God himself, who they say is the grand father of Iso (Sky) who in turn is the grand father of Idu, ancestor of the Binis. One of the brothers of Idu called. Olukumi (the Yorubas were first called Olukumi, today a tribe called olukumi, speaking a language very similar to Itsekiri-Yoruba, and the legends claim they all descended from Egypt, are to be found in parts of Edo and Delta States) lived with him in Uhe (Ife) before they left to found Benin. Michael Crowder: “The story of Nigeria”, Page 63.

The word Olukumi in Itsekiri, means a friend of mine. The word Olukumi, rather than Ore is still used in Ife is evident that Idu and his brothers left to Ile-Ife, after the southward migration of the Yorubas to Ode-Itsekiri and thence to Ile-ife. This is why the story of a watery terrain remains in the tradition of the Binis and the Ifes who are located very far from the Atlantic coast. The vast expanse of water, where the ancestors of the Binis and the find themselves is no other place than the Itsekiri territory of the Atlantic coast.

At a time, the powerful Bini kingdom was paying tax to the Olu of Warri when the yoke of imperialism crumbled the once great kingdom of the Guinea. Concerning this issue Michael Crowder says:

“With the decline of Ughoton
the Benin had to use theports of the Benin river and thus, pay dues to the Olu of Warri in whose territory the ports was located”.17

In conclusion the Itsekiris introduced the following to Benin: salt, beads, and the worship of Umale Okun. The Itsekiri under Dore also helped the Binis to revive their monarchy.

Brief History of Oranfe

ORANFE is known to be among the first set of deities that descended from heaven to earth.

Oranfe is the god of lightning and thunder sent by Eledumare to the universe. (He had) his primary abode at Oke-Ora as a god and had his house built of fire both in heaven and his earthly abode on Ora hill (Oke-Ora) in Ile-Ife then known as Ife Oodaye.

That was why he was referred to as Oranfe Onile Ina (Oranfe owner of the house of fire). All his fellow gods and warriors feared him because of his mystical power of lightning and thunder and the power to emit naked fire from his mouth given to him by the Almighty Eledumare (God).

Due to his enormous power and the constant exchange with the unseen beings, he was usually alone on the hill of Ora (Oke-Ora), and only descended on the order of Oduduwa (His Supreme Head) to attend to his subjects and perform some rituals and sacrifices which he usually carried on in the afternoons (Osangangan) for the cleansing of the land on a routine basis, that was why he was nicknamed Osangangan, while Obatala carried his own sacrifices very early in the morning (Kutukutu Owuro) on the order of Eledumare through Oduduwa.

Oranfe was a powerful warrior with the power behind the wind, thunder and lightening . He is referred to as Oranfe – ONILE INA, ORIRANGIGBO, ALAGEMO TI OUN JE EWE GBIGBE, THE GOD OF FIRE. It was not possible for ordinary humans who were not spiritually fortified to see Oranfe eyeball to eyeball except Oduduwa and direct descendants of Oranfe, even up till today, because of the enormous power he possessed. Obaluru is the head of Ile Oranfe, his living spirit and heritance. Oranfe had many wives including the popular three, Oru, Osara, Akinsin, among others, he also had several children and grandchildren spreading across Ile Oodua (Yoruba land) and beyond. Oru begat Obamakin, the father of Olugbo, Woyeasiri, Oluyare among others.

Oranfe shrine is located along Iloromu Oke-ora in Ile-Ife. The Chief priest of Oranfe is called OBALURU in Obaluru compound Ile-Ife. The Oranfe festival usually holds on Monday nine days after olojo festival. In the olden days, human being were used (i.e killing for the ritual) and they were called them (IWOO meaning a stranger) but nowadays human being are no longer used, but Ram and Sheep are used.

Oranfe first wife is Osara. He was always helping people to fight against those who denied them of their rights. He assisted Obatala, the god of white, to kill Obameri along oke esinmirin river and the place is called igbo obameri.

There were so many chiefs under obaluru who is the king in Oke-Ora, Iloromu Ile-Ife. Obaluru also controls igbo alapara, the sacred bush used to bury those people that were killed by thunder, cripples and hunchbacks.

YorubaRenaissance

Tracing Our Source: Ancient Egypt link.

LINGUISTIC SIMILARITIES

Since Ferdinand de Saussure, the surest way to prove a cultural contact between peoples is to adduce linguistic evidence by Ferdinand de Saussure (1972): General History Of Africa.

One of the largest inhabitants of Egypt were Yoruboid , and it will be expected that a good percentage of their language will be yoruboid too.

See the table below:

EGYPT / YORUBA

1. Wu (rise) Wu (rise)

2. Ausa (Osiris, father of the gods) Ausa (father)

3. Ere (python/ Serpent) Ere (Python / Serpent)

4. Horise (a great god) Orise (a great god)

5. Sen (group of worshippers) Sen ( to worship)

6. Ged (to chant) Igede (a chant)

7. Ta (sell / offer) Ta (sell/offer)

8. Sueg (a fool) Suegbe (a fool)

9. On ( living person) One ( living person)

10. Kum (a club) Kumo l(a club)

11. Enru (fear / terrible) Eru (fear / terrible

12. Kun / qun (brave man) Ekun (title of a brave man)

13. Win (to be) Wino (to be)

14. Odonit (festival) Odon (festival)

15. Ma or mi (to breath) Mi. (to breathe)

16. Tebu (a town) Tebu (a town)

17. Adumu (a water god) Adumu (a water god)

18. Khu (to kill) Ku (die)

19. Rekha (knowledge} Larikha (knowledge)

20 Hika (evil) Ika (evil)

21 Mhebi (humble) Mebi, humble to ones family

22 Sata (perfect) Santan (perfect)

23 Unas (lake of fire) Una (fire)

24 Tan (complete) Tan (complete)

25 Beru (force of emotion) Beru (fear)

26 Em (smell) Emi (smell)

27 Pa (open) Pa (break open)

28 Bi (to become) Bi (to give birth, to become)

29 Hepi (a water god) Ipi (a water god)

30 Sami (water god) Sami (a water god)

31 Osiri (a water god) Oshiri (a water god)

32 Heqet – Re (frog deity) Ekere (the frog)

33 Feh (to go away) Feh (to blow away)

34 Kot (build) Ko (build)

35 Kot (boat) Oko (boat)

36 Omi (water) Omi (water)

37 Ra (time) Ira (time)

38 Oni (title of Osiris) Oni (title of the king of Ife)

39 Budo (dwelling place) Budo (dwelling place)

40 Dudu (black image of Osiris) Dudu (black person)

41 Un (living person) Una (living person)

42 Ra (possess) Ra (possess/buy)

43 Beka (pray/confess) Be or ka (to pray or confess)

44 Po (many) Po (many/cheap)

45 Horuw (head) middle Egyptian Oruwo (head) (Ijebu)

46 Min (a god) Emin (spirit)

47 Ash (invocation) Ashe (invocation)

48 Aru (mouth) Arun (mouth ) Ilaje

49 Do (river) Odo (river)

50 Do (settlement) Udo (settlement)

51 Shekiri (water god) Shekiri (a water god)

52 Bu (a place) Bu ,a place

53 Khepara (beetle Akpakara (beetle)

54 No (a water god Eno (a water god)

55 Ra -Shu (light after darkness Uran-shu (the light of the moon

56 Run-ka (spirit name) Oruko (name)

57 Deb/dib to pierce Dibi (to pierce)

58 Maat (goddess of justice Mate (goddess of justice)

59 Aru (rise) Ru (rise up)

60 Fa (carry) Fa (pull)

61 Kaf (pluck) Ka (pluck)

62 Bu bi (evil place) Bubi (evil place)

63 In- n (negation In-n (negation)

64 Iset (a water god) Ise (a water god)

65 Shabu (watcher) Ashonbo (watcher)

66 Semati (door keeper) Sema (lock/shut the door)

67 Khenti amenti (big words of Osiris Yenti – yenti (big, very big)

68 Ma (to know) Ma (to know)

69 Bebi, a son of osiris) Ube, a god

70 Tchatcha chief (they examined the death to see if they tricked tsatsa (a game of tricks, gambling )

71 Ren( animal foot) Ren (to walk)

72 Ka (rest) Ka (rest/tired)

73 Mu (water) Mu (drink water)

74 Abi (against) Ubi (against / impediment)

75 Reti (to beseech) Retin (to listen)

76 Hir (praise) Yiri (praise)

77 Ta(spread out) Ta (spread out)

78 Kurud (round) Kurudu (round)

79 Ak – male Ako (male)

80 Se – to create Se (to create)

81 Hoo (rejoice) Yo (rejoice)

82 Kamwr (black) Kuru (extremely black

83 Omitjener (deep water) Omijen (deep water)

84 Nen, the primeval water mother) Nene (mother

85 Ta (land) Ita (land junction)

86 Horiwo (head) Oriwo (head)

87 Ro (talk) Ro (to think)

88 Kurubu (round) Kurubu (deep and round)

89 Penka (divide) Kpen (divide)

90 Ma-su (to mould) Ma or su (to mould)

91 Osa (time) Osa (time)

92 Osa (tide) Osa ( tide)

93 Fare (wrap) Fari (wrap)

94 Kom (complete) Kon (complete)

95 Edjo (cobra) Edjo (cobra)

96 Didi (red fruit) Diden (red)

97 Ba (soul) Oba (king) soul of a people

98 Ke (hill) Oke( hill

99 Anubis (evil deity) Onubi (evil person)

100 Kan (one: Middle Egyptian) Okan (one)

101 Nam (water god) Inama (water god)

The words above are used to show that most Yoruban words are identical to the ancient Egyptian.

Iyalode of Ibadan, Alhaja Aminat Abiodun, is dead.

Sources at her family compound in Idi- Arere area of Ibadan and her Bodija residence, said she died in the early hours of this morning, today the 8th of December, 2018.

As Iyalode, she is the representative of women in the Olubadan-in-council which has 11 members ( the Olubadan as the head and 10 other high chiefs, including Iyalode). During her lifetime, she’s referred to as the Obabinrin (female king) of Ibadanland. She combines wealth with power. The tall, beautiful and elegant woman is a ‘talk of the town woman’ everywhere she goes.

She became the Iyalode of Ibadan following the demise of the former occupant, Chief Mrs Wuraola Akintola. Aminat Abiodun was announced in August, 2007 and installed on the 19th day October, 2007, as the Iyalode of Ibadanland, the 13th in the history of the ancient town, rising through the ladder as Jagun Iyalode of Ibadanland, from 1971 to her present position‎, almost 36 years after she began her journey. May her soul rest in peace.

The Brief History of Olugbo lineage: Obamakin Osangangan

His Highness, Oba Obateru Akinruntan, Olugbo of Ugboland

Oranfe is the god of lightning and thunder sent by Eledumare to the universe. (He had) his primary abode at Oke-Ora as a god and had his house built of fire both in heaven and his earthly abode on Ora hill (Oke-Ora) in Ile-Ife then known as Ife Oodaye. That was why he was referred to as Oranfe Onile Ina (Oranfe owner of the house of fire). All his fellow gods and warriors feared him because of his mystical power of lightning and thunder and the power to emit naked fire from his mouth given to him by the Almighty Eledumare (God).

Due to his enormous power and the constant exchange with the unseen beings, he was usually alone on the hill of Ora (Oke-Ora), and only descended on the order of Oduduwa (His Supreme Head) to attend to his subjects and perform some rituals and sacrifices which he usually carried on in the afternoons (Osangangan) for the cleansing of the land on a routine basis, that was why he was nicknamed Osangangan, while Obatala carried his own sacrifices very early in the morning (Kutukutu Owuro) on the order of Eledumare through Oduduwa. It was not possible for ordinary humans who were not spiritually fortified to see Oranfe eyeball to eyeball except Oduduwa and direct descendants of Oranfe, even up till today, because of the enormous power he possessed.

Obaluru is the head of Ile Oranfe, his living spirit and heritance. Oranfe had many wives including the popular three, Oru, Osara, Akinsin, among others, he also had several children and grandchildren spreading across Ile Oodua (Yoruba land) and beyond. Oru begat Obamakin, the father of Olugbo, Woyeasiri, Oluyare among others.

Although Oranfe was a god-King, further studies of Yoruba cosmology revealed that when the gods/deities were coming from heaven (Ikole Orun) to earth (Ikole Aye), all the gods were ordered by Eledumare to work with Oduduwa on earth among whom were Oranfe. Eledumare gave the Ase (spiritual authority) to Oduduwa over all other god-kings, which symbolizes that Eledumare created the earth primarily for human beings. Oranfe was given special power above so many gods/deities, that was why he was called Oba Igba irunmole (King of 200 deities), while Oduduwa being the supreme head of all god-kings/deities was referred to as the Oba Okan le nirinwo irunmole (King of 401 deities) which is one of the several titles of Ooniriisa (the owner of the gods) till date.

Although on several occasions, this supreme authority given to Oduduwa by Eledumare generated a lot of disagreements among the gods on why he would exercise supreme authority on them, but each time Ifa Olokun (Oracle) was consulted, they were all warned not to question this divine arrangement by Eledumare. Digging deeper is like questioning the existence of Eledumare, naturally because of this they all “Wori” (Pay homage) to him as the father of all beings, kings and gods on earth, till today. Obaluru (Oranfe) being Oba igba Irunmole under Oduduwa, Oba Okanlenirinwo irunmole still pay homage (Wori) to any reigning Ooni as a sign of humility and respect as directed by Eledumare. Further details will be unveiled in my subsequent publications.

Obamakin was a known warrior and a brave man, who doubled as a liaison officer for his father Oranfe Onile Ina. Oranfe, the father of Obamakin had so many children from his other wives but his most beloved wife Akinsin was childless. One day Oduduwa called Oranfe and few other gods to accompany him on a journey (this culture is still in practice in present day Ile-Ife), that might take them many days, months or possibly years to return.

Oranfe, being very old then needed to apportion some properties to his wives and children. Akinsin, his most beloved wife was given a piece of land on which Obamakin had been farming temporary for a while, and he gave other valuable materials and properties out to other wives and to each of his children. Then he proceeded to Ile Idio to meet Oduduwa for the journey.

Prior to that time, Obamakin had been exhibiting a lot of rebellious and shameful attitudes, abuse of privileges among others, such as excessive drinking, forcefully marrying other people’s wives ( Ogbe ewure ton towo, ogbe olomoge ton tororo idire), this shameful and rebellious act of Obamakin formed part of Oriki (Eulogy) for anybody coming from Ile Oranfe in Ile-Ife till date – “Omo Oranfe lese oke, to n tan ina memu l’osangangan, omo gbirin abuke, gbinrin abaro, O gbe ewure ton towo, Ogbe olomoge to n tororo idi re.”

As soon as Oranfe left for Idio (Oduduwa’s place) to embark on the journey, Obamakin having felt that Oranfe had embarked on a long journey in which he was not likely to come back alive considering his age then, and being a warrior, felt it was Oranfe’s grand plan to dispossess and deny him what he considered his inheritance. He then planned a full scale war against Akinsin his father’s wife. As at then, Obamakin was around 29 years, and had gotten children of his own, he called his loyal warriors and friends to assemble at a place called Iloromu (Meaning a place where the wickedness of man resides), which is still in existence in present day Ile Ife. Obamakin launched a surprise attack on Akinsin (Oranfes wife), which led to her being chased away and dispossessed of her apportioned land.

While that was going on at Oke Ora, Oranfe, being a powerful god-king sensed something was wrong at home, he then sought the permission of Oduduwa to go back home as his house was in crisis. As the news of Oranfe coming home unexpectedly got to Obamakin, who had started exhibiting arrogance and rebellion against his father (by changing his name to Obamakin Osangangan, living the life of affluence and oppression of people), quickly called his warriors that Oranfe was closer to Oke Ora and that could mean a doom for him if he should get home seeing his beloved wife sent away and disposed of her right.

Obamakin then decided to run away. He embarked on a journey to an inhabited place called Iwinrin/Igbo Ugbo (forest of the vultures). It was there they became wild as a result of hunger and famine, it should be noted that at this place called Ugbo, Obamakin made love to one of the slaves that accompanied him in the rebellious journey who gave birth to Omo Olu Ugbo, later pronounced as Olugbo. Other warriors that followed him settled around the Ugbo community for constant propitiation of the gods and ceremonial rituals.

Ooni as the owner of diffused monotheism, a religion of many gods controlling about 401 deities within the framework of awesomeness of high God. Oranfe was one of the god-king placed under Oduduwa by the Eledumare. Obaluru, being the living spirit of Oranfe, is a king under the supreme leadership of Any reigning Aaroole Oodua/Ooniriisa.

Yoruba from The Early Period

Ile-Ife according to Yoruba belief is the earthly origin and fountain of all. Yoruba is a pre historic race. Ife traditional history maintains that from Ife scattered the various species of mankind. Yoruba history tells that the personage Oduduwa migrated to Ile-Ife where he reigned and held sway, established the Yoruba dynasty, and Oduduwa could not have been his original name.

As tradition has it, he had several children who in due time became the progenitors of the various clans, when taken together are the Yoruba people. Oral traditions tell us that early Ife history is divided chronologically into three:

The first was Ife Oodaiye, Ile Owuro (the land of the most ancient days where the dawn was first experienced). Tradition tells us that this Ife ended as a result of flooding.

The survivors formed the nucleus of the second Ife, Ife Ooyelagbo (Ife, the city of survivors) this existed until the arrival of elements from the east whose attempt to seize power led to a bloody struggle between Oduduwa also known as Olofintoto and the aboriginies led by Obatala. Oduduwa conquered and founded Ile-Ife (Ife of peace). Oral tradition of Ile Ife tells us that many communities existed in the second Ife. Each having its own Oba and each Oba had his Chiefs.

Archaeological field survey shows that 13 of these communities have been revealed. Oduduwas victory led to the centralization of these communities and became the first Ooni (ruler). The word Ooni was never used until the first centralised government in Ile Ife.\nTradition tells us that Oduduwa had many children, male and female. Oduduwa’s daughter was married to Obatala, and gave birth to Olowu, Asunkungbade the founder of Owu Kingdom.

Towards the end of Oduduwa’s reign, He became blind and lost four of his powerful sons. On the demise of Ooni Odua, one of his sons, Obalufon Ogbogbodiri succeeded him as Ooni. Before his death, Ooni Odua, reformed the government and crowned all his children and sent them abroad with orders to show filial obedience to their brother who he first crowned his successor as Ooni. Yoruba Obas refered to themselves as brothers, though their kingdoms waged war against each other.

The kiriji wars ended with the insistent declaration of the Owa Obokun that the Aalafin of Oyo was his brother, not subordinate. In 1903 dispute between the Elepe and Akarigbo, they refused the authority of the Aalafin as matters paternaining to giving crowns, but both subjected themselves to the decision of the Ooni according to Ife tradition,

Oranmiyan led an expedition to Benin and subdued the people. Reigned for 13 years and and returned to Ife, not understanding the language, but promised to give them a king from their own blood. He took a Benin wife, and the result of that union was Eweka I of Benin. Up till today, the site is called Orun Oba Ado in Ile Ife where oranmiyan set out to found the Yoruba dynasty in Benin. And it is to this spot that the heads of the kings of Benin were brought for burial.

The last time this tradition was kept was with the burial of King Adolo of Benin.

Ile-Ife according to Yoruba belief is the earthly origin and fountain of all. Yoruba is a pre historic race. Ife traditional history maintains that from Ife scattered the various species of mankind. Yoruba history tells that the personage Oduduwa migrated to Ile-Ife where he reigned and held sway, established the Yoruba dynasty, and Oduduwa could not have been his original name.

As tradition has it, he had several children who in due time became the progenitors of the various clans, when taken together are the Yoruba people. Oral traditions tell us that early ife history is divided chronologically into three. The first was Ife Oodaiye, Ile Owuro (the land of the most ancient days where the dawn was first experienced). Tradition tells us that this Ife ended as a result of flooding.

Yoruba Obas refered to themselves as brothers, though their kingdoms waged war against each other. The kiriji wars ended with the insistent declaration of the Owa Obokun that the Aalafin of Oyo was his brother, not subordinate. In 1903 dispute between the Elepe and Akarigbo, they refused the authority of the Aalafin as matters paternaining to giving crowns, but both subjected themselves to the decision of the Ooni.

According to Ife tradition, Oranmiyan led an expedition to Benin and subdued the people. Reigned for 13 years and and returned to Ife, not understanding the language, but promised to give them a king from their own blood. He took a Benin wife, and the result of that union was Eweka I of Benin.

Up till today, the site is called Orun Oba Ado in Ile Ife where oranmiyan set out to found the Yoruba dynasty in Benin. And it is to this spot that the heads of the kings of Benin were brought for burial. The last time this tradition was kept was with the burial of King Adolo of Benin.

Regency in Yorubaland

Princess Adetutu Adesida- Dike the Regent of Akure

Regency, a practice, whereby a princess is allowed to occupy the throne until a substantive king is installed, is presently practiced in some states in yorubaland. In yoruba tradition, regency is designed to honor the first daughter of every Oba/king/High chief who died on the throne. However, such honor is not extended to any Oba who was banished. There have been instances in Akure history when two Regents have refused to quit and they went ahead to be confirmed as the Deji for many years.

in yorubaland. In yoruba tradition, regency is designed to honor the first daughter of every Oba/king/High chief who died on the throne. However, such honor is not extended to any Oba who was banished. There have been instances in Akure history when two Regents have refused to quit and they went ahead to be confirmed as the Deji for many years.

The Regent is supposed to be an interim Oba in the real sense of it. She enjoys all the honor and privileges attached to the office of the Oba and she has to dress as a man for the period she is Regent. Because she has worn a crown, she is is never again required to expose her head or get careless with any strands of her hair if she ever goes to a Beauty Salon after leaving the throne. She must never again carry anything on her head for the rest of her life.

HER MAJESTY, PRINCESS JOYCE IBIMIDUN ADESOLA OLADIRAN EBISENI, THE REGENT KALASUWE OF IJAW- APOILAND.

She is forever exempted from being a victim of domestic violence in her marriage meaning that her husband must never lay hands on her regardless of any provocation on her part. If she is not married, she could go and marry after serving as a Regent.

Tradition has it that a married woman or a single lady should be made a Regent instead of a male, for it is assumed that a male might not want to leave as he may transform himself to be king .It had happened in one of the towns before. But if a married woman or spinster is enthroned she will be yearning to go back to her husband and family while a spinster will be yearning to get married and start a new life with her own family.

The Regent is to all intent and purposes the Oba-in-Council in and she automatically takes precedence over the all the chiefs and they are subservient to the Regent and must swear traditional allegiance and loyalty to the Regent as an Institution. From Igbona-Ekiti in Ikole Local Government Area to Erio-Ekiti in Ekiti west and Awo-Ekiti, in Irepodun-Ifelodun Local Government Area, regents currently hold the fort, even if temporarily, as kings on the thrones of their fathers, occasionally giving orders, settling disputes, attending community and state functions and filling other spaces within the communities as needs often compel.

While some communities are said to choose males as regents, the more common and familiar are the females who are the direct daughters of recently deceased monarchs. Findings showed that males are seldom made regents because of the possibilities of a refusal to vacate the throne when a substantive monarch is installed, causing a situation in which two monarchs lay claim to one royal stool.

Further findings reveal that the regents, who are sometimes known even before the demise of a sitting monarch, are there mainly for titular purposes and for a short time till another monarch is selected and installed. It was also found out that in actual fact, the administrative running of the towns still solely rests with the chiefs as a regent might have one personal reason or the other to be away.

The Alaani of Idoani, Princess

Adetutu Atewogboye.

According to Yoruba tradition, the moment a princess ascends the throne and as long as she remains the regent, she is no longer regarded as a woman and she is expected to appear always like a man, but she is only allowed to wear the round beaded crowns, unlike the male kings who have various crowns designed and decorated with beads which may fall over their faces.

The faces of the regents must not be covered and the beads on the neck, falling on their chest must not be more than three and graduated in three layers, although this varies in some communities. But, the beads of the Obas, though of the same length could be more than three.

Regents cannot undertake during the regency any installation of chieftaincy titles, removal of erring chiefs on any excuse and registration of chieftaincy declarations.

The Regency concept is not universal in Yorubaland. There was no Regent in Ijebu Land before the current Awujale, Ogbagba the second was coronated. Same in Lagos after Oba Adeniji Adele or Oba Oyekan joined their ancestors. So also in Ile Ife after Oonirisa Atobatele Sir Adesoji Aderemi left, and Kabiyesi Sijuwade took over.

There was no Regent in Oyo Alaafin where the Oyo Mesi reign supreme. Same for the Owa Obokun of Ilesha after the demise of Owa Obokun Agunlejika and before Oba Aromolaran took over. There was no Regent in Owo after Ekunwolu, Oluaiye Olateru Olagbegi answered the call.

There was no Regent in Idanre following the transition of Kabiyesi Owa Arubiefin.

However, there are few towns in Ekitiland and other places where they had Regents in their traditional system. Certainly in Ado Ewi and Iropora and Oba Ile near Akure, the tradition is fully observed. In the case of Akure, we have had two Regents who have refused to quit after serving out their term as Regents. The were both powerful women of substance with a lot of medicinal and spuritual power.

One of them became the 13th Deji of Akure. Her name was “Eyearo” She reigned for 26 years from 1393 to 1419. The second one became the 25th Deji. Her name is “Eyemoin.” She reigned for 30 years from 1705 to 1735. We are able to talk about them today because their reigns were properly documented.

Princess Bisoye Adedipe, Regent of Elemo in Akure.

After Ewuare the Great broke chalk, his eldest son Ezoti succeeded him. If you recall Olua (Edeleyo’s younger brother) succeeded Ezoti (circa 1473) who himself moved on to the great beyond within 14 days – shot by an aggrieved palace boy during coronation.

According to Egharevba, when Ezoti began his journey to the spirit world, his brother Okpame went to Esi to bring Ezoti’s only son (Owere) back to take the throne. Sadly, Owere and his mum were assassinated on the way back (buried alive) by Okpame – but news of his action leaked leading to his banishment (exile) to Ora. Fear of Okpame made Olua (Ewuare’s second son) initially refuse the throne. Thus, Edeleyo (Olua’s older sister) was invited to become Oba. She was actually installed as Edaiken but fell ill to an unspecified incurable female complaint on her way to Uselu. The spot where she took ill is called Ogbe Edeleyo and bears a shrine to this day. Every Edaiken since then has been decreed to offer a sacrifice at this spot on his way to Uselu.

Orompoto (also spelled: Oronpoto) was the first and last female Alaafin of Oyo, also the empire’s titled ruler. She was the sister of her predecessor Eguguojo. She assumed the throne because there was no male successor from her elder brother at the time. Orompoto lived in the 16th-century. She was considered a skillful warrior and was known according to Oyo tales of her inadvertent victory at the battle of Illayi. Orompoto was one of the four Alaafins to be buried in Oyo Igoho, the capital established by Eguguoju, his brother.

Orompoto’s story say that she was a woman who “danced in and out on the day of her coronation and then the king-makers looked up and realised she had turned into a man.” Orompoto was the child of Egungunoju, the first king of Oyo at Igboho who had no sons. As she wanted to rule against Yoruba tradition, she chose to change her sex rather than shift the throne to another family.

Orompoto was the monarch who introduced cavalary into the Oyo military and lead the Oyo army to conquer many lands. It has been suggested that she is the one behind Oyo bcoming the largest empire in Yoruba history. Interestingly, it is noted that Orompoto’s successor, her son Ajiboyede was the first Oyo king to impose castration for the ranking male official in the palace. Apparently no other woman assumed the Oyo throne before and after the reign of Orompoto.

Luwoo was the first and only female to be crowned a king in Ife. She was said to be the 21st Ooni of Ife. She took over the thrown after the demise of Ooni Giesi and was succeeded by Ooni Lumobi. Her reign was said to be filled with terror and fear especially by the men. The female folks in Ife lost the opportunity of being crowned a king again just because of the wickedness perpetrated by Luwoo while seated on the revered throne.

She is said to be so finicky that she did not walk on bare floor. According to palace sources, Luwoo walks on tiles, clay tiles. The residue of the tiles she walked on while she reigned is still available in Ife and other parts of Yoruba land she visited while on the throne because the tiles are unique. The hand-made clay tiles Ooni of Ife Queen Luwoo walked on How did she get these tiles produced? It was gathered that anyone who commit one offence or the other is ordered to make the clay tiles.

They are ordered to bake the clay, and afterwards use their bare hands to break it into pieces and then lay it on the floor for the queen to walk on. It is reported that the female Ooni was a beautiful and sophisticated queen who took pride in her physical appearance and that of her surroundings. She was also known to be the one to commission unique Yoruba custom of construction of decorative pavements; open-air courtyards paved the pottery shreds. Queen Luwoo was said not to spare the menfolk when they offend her or her constituted authority. She was noted to ride erring men as horses for violating her laws. She was a terror to lazy people. For her highhandedness, the council of obas in Ife convened and vowed after her demise not to make a female the Ooni of Ife again as they saw Queen Luwoo as being uncontrollable by them.

The role of Regents ought to be defined by a purposeful Government since they are being paid by tax payers. A responsible Government ought to be able to do that. Awolowo Government to his everlasting credit initiated the 1958 Chieftaincy Declarations covering the whole Western Region to forestall anarchy and confusion and hooliganism associated with filling most of the vacancies for most of the important Obaship and Chieftaincy titles in the old West.

YorubaRenaissance

Deji of Akure’s 850-yr-old palace

Ua Lila, Ua Ogoga, Ua Ibura, Ua Oriole, Ua Ojukoto, Ua Agbeto, and twelve other courtyards make up the cultural magnificence that is the old palace of the Deji of Akure. Still standing despite being constructed more than 850 years ago.

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The old palace of the Paramount Ruler of Akureland, the Deji of Akure, located in the modern day Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, which has housed no fewer than 47 kings, depicts the rich history, values, customs and tradition of the people of the town. Historical monuments are on display there, and it is no wonder the palace was declared one of the historical national monuments in 1990. It is home to many artefacts.

The palace, according to history, was built around 1150 AD by the first traditional ruler of Akure Kingdom, Oba Asodeboyede, who came from Ile Ife, and was one of the grandchildren of Oduduwa, the progenitor of the Yoruba race.

The architectural designs of the palace, in spite of how old it is, retains its traditional use and value till date, as many traditional rites, rituals, festivals, and other ceremonies such as the coronation of a new king and chiefs are performed in the old palace. The building represents a masterpiece of human creative genius based on the level of technology at that time.

Old palace was preserved to give young people access to Akure’s history –Sele of Akureland

The old palace of the Deji of Akureland has been preserved to offer opportunity for the young ones and visitors to learn about the history, values and culture of Akure people, noting that many historical monuments can be found in the palace.

The palace has about 18 different courtyards, with each courtyard holding significance to Akure people.

‘If women pass the palace’s male entrance, they risk infertility’

There are two main entrances to the palace, aside the main entrance which is reserved for the king. There is an entrance meant for men and another for women. “Women are not allowed to pass through the male entrance and this has a traditional attachment. If a woman tries to enter through the male gate, she risks becoming infertile for the rest of her life. This is one of the reasons why guards are stationed there to monitor the movement of the people. But men can use the women entrance.”

“Ua lila” is the biggest of the courtyards in the palace. He explained that the people of the town met and gathered at the courtyard to discuss general issues concerning the town. As the name refers, Ua Lila, which means big courtyard, is surrounded by big pillars, covered with old rustic zinc, with a section for the king and his high chiefs, and big enough to accommodate more than 1,000 people. “This is an assembly where decisions are taken by the people of the town.” Aside this, there is a big hall which he said was constructed by Oba Afunbiowo but was recently renovated by the present Deji of Akureland, Oba Aladelusi Aladetoyinbo.

A royal cart, which is a replica of the Queen of England’s cart, is also noticed by our correspondent at the entrance of the palace. The royal cart, with its large umbrella, is said to be used to transport the king on special occasions.

The Akure, Ekiti cow courtyard connection

At Ua Ogoga, carcasses of cows and bones were seen in this courtyard. The chief explained that the courtyards expressed the bond and link between the people of Akure and Ikere in Ekiti State.

“For every king installed in Ikere Ekiti, they must bring a cow as a sign of respect to Akure, because it is in history that they moved from here to their present abode. We regard them as part of us and we also identify with them. This is the reason a whole courtyard was dedicated for them.”

“For every king installed in Ikere Ekiti, they must bring a cow as a sign of respect to Akure, because it is in history that they moved from here to their present abode. We regard them as part of us and we also identify with them. This is the reason a whole courtyard was dedicated for them.”

The courtyard the king enters once in a lifetime

The Ua Ibura, as its name connotes, is specially reserved for oath taking. He said the place was created for oath taking and it was to prevent criminal activities in the town. He recalled that some 100 Akure youths recently voluntarily visited the Ua Ibura to voluntarily renounce cultism. Apart from Ua Ibura, there is another courtyard known as Ua Oriole, where traditional rulers, chiefs – whether traditional or honorary – swear an oath of allegiance.

At the Ua Oriole, there are two special magical pots placed at a section of the courtyard. The traditional chief explained that “whenever there is drought in the land, the pots would be placed at the shrine, while some appeals would be made, and I can assure you that after five minutes of the completion of the rituals, rain will surely fall.”

Beside the oath taking courtyard, is a special room, which was blocked and he said: “This room is specially designed for Deji of Akure and he enters this room once in his life time.”

The Ua Ojukoto is a place where all rites and ceremonies are held for new chiefs. Aside this, if there is any emergency, the king and the chiefs usually meet there to discuss about the town and pressing issues.

Ua Agbeto, the room for urinating that never stinks’

“The traditionalists or ifa worshippers meet here every nine days to offer prayers and consult for the Kabiyesi. A special feature of one the courtyards known as Ua Agbeto, is that it rarely stinks. The chief explained that no matter how often people urinated there, it will never give off odour. He said: “There is no explanation for this; it is something which people cannot easily explain, but it has been established as being true.”

There are so many other courtyards, which include Ua Ameshe, where offenders are punished. Another significant feature in the palace is the final resting place of some of the past kings of the town. Carcasses and skeletons of cows were noticed in each of the rooms which housed the remains of the past kings. He revealed that about 26 traditional festivals are being observed in the old palace, just as he noted that there were some places within the old palace which were not exposed to visitors.

‘Only kings were allowed to have women, slaves were castrated’

The old palace used to house only the king, as the king is regarded as the only ‘man’ in the palace. He said it is a taboo for anybody to smoke in the palace.

“The Deji is the only ‘man’ residing in the palace. The slaves living in the palace in those days were usually castrated, and no man, except the Deji has the right to have a woman in the palace.”

Princes were not allowed to live in the palace. When they reached a certain age, they would be sent to the villages and installed as heads of those villages. This explains the reason Dejis were also brought from the village to be crowned,” noting that this was to checkmate atrocities within the palace, while the princes were usually trained outside the palace.

The palace has been able to stand the test of time because of the planned drainage system and landscaping within the palace. There is free flow of rain water from one courtyard to another, and the water empties itself into the main courtyard, Ua Lila, then moves from there to the town’s main drainage system, and this has prevented the palace structure and walls from collapsing.

The palace, undoubtedly, remains one of the best examples of the cultural richness of Ondo State, and by extension, Nigeria, as the palace mirrors the customs, tradition and values of the past and present people of Akure community, centuries old, yet relevant in the modern world.

YORUBARENAISSANCE

Culled from Nigera Tribune, February 6, 2018

Araba Agbaye

35-year-old Ifa priest, Owolabi Aworeni has emerged new Araba Agbaye and got the approval of the Ooni of Ife, Oba Eniitan Ogunwusi.

The new Araba Agbaye learnt the rope from his father right from childhood and showed traits of making it to the apex of the priesthood with his many exploits that earned him accolade within and outside the country. He has his presence in countries such as USA, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, UK, Paraguay, Venezuela, Argentina where has received awards in propagating Ifa, Yoruba history and Cultural heritage.

He is the last son of his parents and partly a student of Oluwo Fawole of Agesinyowa compound of Ile-Ife in the late 1990s. The passion of the new Araba Agbaye over the years was all about propagating traditional religion in face of the expanding influence of Christianity and Islam in Yorubaland.

It was learnt that his journey to Awo Olodumerindinlogun started in December 2013, when he became member of the Awo Olodumerindinlogun and was installed Olori Iwarefa.

In April 7 2018, he emerged as the new Afedigba Awo Olodumerindinlogun due to the death of late Afedigba and Baale Ile Oke-Itase, Pa. Olujide Omopariola.

He is the founder of Orishada Ifa Cultural Foundation. It was also learnt that the title of Araba Agbaye is restricted to Oke-Itase compound, Ile-Ife. The first Araba Agate was one Agiri a.k.a. Baba Oke-Itase. It was his descendant that has been reigning as Araba Agbaye. Some of his successors were Olumodan, Gbagalaala, Adoosioke, Agarawu, Lamilooye, Ijala, Awoyeju Ipeti Nagunnaja, Fafore Omopariola, Awosope Awosade, Fasuyi Omopariola, Adisa Aworeni, and the newest Araba, Owolabi Awodotun Aworeni.

Further findings also revealed that not all male child of Oke-Itase is qualified to hold the title of Araba Agbaye. It is exclusive to only child who has been initiated to Awo Olodumerindinlogun cult under the headship of Araba Agbaye.

The Brief History of Idanre

Oba Arubiefin IV, The Owa of Idanre.

Olofin Aremitan the younger brother of Olofin Oduduwa led a group of people from Ile Ife after the demise of Oduduwa owing to the ensuing power struggle with the heirs to the throne of Oduduwa.

On the death of Oduduwa, Olofin Aremitan left Ile Ife with a group of people and settled first at Ijama in the present day Ile-oluji with Jegun Orere. A short while after, perhaps after only a season, he moved to Epe, It was believed that a group of people parted from Olofin at Ijama; and he bade goodbye to the rest at Epe. From Epe, Olofin moved out with those we might regard today as the fathers of Idanre and settled at Ojanla, not far from river Owena. From this time on, Idanre had maintained its distinct almost completely separated from all other children of Oduduwa.

The exact reason that led Olofin to leave Ife is the power tussle that no doubt erupted between Oduduwa’s heirs after the death of this powerful King. Olofin ruled Ife briefly after the death of Oduduwa as a regent but his reign was marred by jealousy, in-fighting and acrimony. Defeated in his bid for power, he set out to found another settlement with his followers, going eastward through Ujama, Epe, Urede, Ojanla, Jaleja, Utaja (his last stop where he called Ufe’ke), and crossing the Urore river. In some accounts, he was accompanied in these travels by the early leaders of Idanre.

After the death of Olofin Oduduwa, Olofin Aremitan took with him a few valuable and the most treasured belongings of Oduduwa. These include among others the ancient crown of Oduduwa, Oreghe, Ugwan, a pair of irunkere or horse tail and certain medicine for their preservation. These were supposed to be the common property of all the children of Oduduwa. It is related orally that some of the property he could not take with him while leaving Ile-Ife he sent Ajija to bring them for him.

OWA OF IDANRE.

Idanre people lived in caves, safeguarded by the protective charms of Olofin. Olofin lived with the Idanre people at Utaja for about forty years. Seeing that he was getting too old and could travel no further, he eventually died in a cave at Utaja-Idanre called Uwo-Akota, meaning the cave of wasps. Relics that are claimed to have belonged to Olofin remain in the cave until this day. Uwo Akota was located on the West side of Utaja at the foot of Aghagha Hill on the Eastern path to Oke Idanre.

Olofin Aremitan was succeeded by his lieutenant Agboogun who inherited all his properties as well as the old enemies. Agboogun was the armour bearer of Olofin and his name indeed makes reference to this; “Agberu Ogun” means he who carries his master’s tools of war. Agboogun sought to protect his people from invasion by surrounding enemies and decided to relocate his community from the foot of the hills to Oke-idanre, the top of the hills. In those days, the new settlement was called, “Ufe Oke,” which loosely translates to ‘Ife atop the hills’, thus providing some connection to ancient Ile-Ife.

One of Agboogun’s lieutenants was an explorer and hunter named Egunren and it was he who sought out the ideal location for the Idanre people to reside at Idanre Hills. Agboogun feared for the safety of his people in the valleys, where it was easy for other tribes to raid and enslave the people. He thus met with his followers, who were split into several groups, to deliberate on a more secure place to settle for the Makanres (Idanre people). These groups included Logunro, who led the Urowo people, Asalu who led the Usalu people, and Jemiken, who led the Udale people. One of these followers was a hunter called Egunren, who had gone up Aghagha hill on one of his hunting expeditions.

He reported that he had found a secure location up in the hills, where enemies could not easily attack. Agboogun led his followers to Oke Idanre, where they first settled the Oba at a place named Usalu up in the hills. However, this region was thought to be too exposed, so another location was chosen, close to Egunren, “the hunter’s cave”, where the people would mobilise; presumable under the lead of Egunren who was the leading warrior.

Agboogun settled at Odeja. The building of the palace took over 30 years to construct. As he was getting old, he decided to relinquish the palace on to his son, Baganju, on the condition that he would perform rites at Odeja for his father after the former’s death. Baganju was thus the first Owa to occupy the old palace at Oke Idanre. However, the traditional accounts are generally in agreement in considering Agboogun the first Owa of Idanre up in Idanre Hills, with Baganju as the second.

Oke Idanre hill consists of high plain with spectacular valleys interspersed with inselbergs of about 3,000 ft above sea level. Its physical attributes include Owa’s Palace, Shrines, Old Court, Belfry, Agbooogun foot print, thunder water (Omi Apaara) and burial mounds and grounds. It also has diverse and variegated eco-systems of flora and fauna. Oke Idanre contains very important bio-physical and land form features whose interaction with the physical features created an enduring cultural landscape within the setting.

The names of the past Obas in Idanre and some of their outstanding achievements are as follows:

1. Owa Agboogun

Following Olofin’s decease, his most able lieutenant, Agboogun became the leader of the people and their eventual first King. Agboogun was the armourbearer of Olofin and his name indeed makes reference to this; “Agberu Ogun” means he who carries his master’s tools of war. Agboogun sought to protect his people from invasion by surrounding enemies and decided to relocate his community from the foot of the hills to Oke-idanre, the top of the hills. In those days, the new settlement was called, “Ufe Oke,” which loosely translates to ‘Ife atop the hills’, thus providing some connection to ancient Ile-Ife. One of Agboogun’s lieutenants was an explorer and hunter named Egunren and it was he who sought out the ideal location for the Idanre people to reside at Idanre Hills. Agboogun established and ruled over seven quarters and family groups for ease of administration. The quarters were named: Irowo, Isalu, Idale, Ijomu, Isurin, Okedo and Odeja. As Agboogun became increasingly old and frail, it became more difficult for him to handle the responsibilities of kingship and tensions between the seven heads of families began to emerge. The community decided it would be prudent to have a new King to replace Agboogun, a proposal with which he agreed.

2. Owa Baganju

Deliberations between the heads of the seven quarters and the leaders in the community resulted in Owa Baganju ascending to the kingship of Idanre. His emergence marked the first clear cut establishment of a royal lineage for Idanre. The heads of all the other seven families would henceforth be Heads of Quarters, whilst Owa Baganju’s descendants would be the paramount rulers of Idanreland. Owa Agboogun abdicated the kingship and gave his daughter, Agbamudu in marriage to Owa Baganju, hence confirming his approval of the new monarchy arrangement. Nevertheless, Baganju continued to honour Agboogun as his leader, especially during high feasts or the performance of the annual traditional Ije (Iden) festival when Baganju would wear the full regalia of office as King.

He would go to Agboogun to pay homage, conduct some rites and receive blessings from him.

Baganju and Orosun. During the reign of Owa Baganju, Orosun, the beautiful lover of Olofin Aremitan returned to Ufe-Oke from Ikori her hometown to resume her relationship with Olofin Aremitan, only to find out that Olofin had passed away. Orosun remained in Ufe-Oke (which was later renamed Idanre) and eventually married Owa Baganju.

Oral history records that Orosun travelled down to Ikori (in Akoko area) where she met and fell in love with Olofin Aremitan, the founder of Idanreland. Orosun was one of the many wives of Olofin Aremitan.

From Ikori, she went with Olofin to Utaja (in Idanre). Subsequently, Orosun went to Akoko to collect her belongings so that she could return to Idanre to settle down with Olofin as his spouse. However, before she returned, Olofin unfortunately passed away and the people had moved to Oke-Idanre. Orosun followed the Idanre people to Oke Idanre and eventually became espoused to Agboogun.

Orosun was generally loved by Idanre people owing to her love for children despite not having one herself (she had offered her only child as a human sacrifice whilst in Ile-Ife). She was known as a healer of sorts, often cooking herbs with her ‘Ikoko Aremo’ to cure children of their illnesses.

At some point, perhaps as a result of political intrigue, Orosun became the target of communal hatred and she was eventually assassinated at the foot of the highest hill in Idanre. After her death, the people consulted the Ifa Oracle who revealed that Orosun had being unjustly treated and the oracle mandated that Orosun be given a proper burial ceremony, be deified and sacrifices be offered to her annually. The highest mountain in Idanre, at the foot of which she reportedly died, is named after Orosun and the festivals continue to be held in her honour yearly during the reign of Baganju.

During the reign of Baganju, a new hereditary chieftaincy title called Mananre was created for the Okedo quarters. During his reign also, around the time of the annual Ije festival, a certain Laamogun attempted to steal the ancient crown of Oduduwa, which Olofin had brought from Ile-Ife and was handed down to the successive kings of Idanre. The attempt was thwarted, a crime for which Laamogun paid with his life. When Owa Baganju died, he was laid to rest at Okedo, a street which later took up the appellation, “Ode Oba”, i.e. the street of the king.

3. Owa Beyoja

The successor to Owa Baganju was Owa Beyoja. His name derived from his successes in fending off the incursions of the people of Oyo during the Eyo (Oyo) wars. Legend records one of such encounters in which Owa Beyoja learned of the impending invasion by the famed Oyo army coming from Ile-Ife on horses. Beyoja instructed every able-bodied man in the Idanre community to produce as much palm wine as they could. The palm wine would be laced with poisons and placed in several strategic locations for their enemies. The Oyo warriors unsuspectingly drank the poisoned wines and many of them died. Those who survived or avoided the poisoned drinks proceeded towards Idanre and attempted to fight their way to the top of Idanre Hills. On getting to a flat rock which came to be known afterwards as Okuta Eleyo, the Oyo warriors were ambushed by the well prepared Idanre warriors who decimated the rest of the Oyo army, leaving only a very few to escape to an enclave called Oba Ile.

4. Owa Jarungan

Owa Jarungan was the son of Baganju, the second King of Idanreland.

5. Owa Ogbogbomudu

Owa Ogbogbomudu was the grandson of Owa Agboogun and son of Owa Baganju through Agbamudu, the daughter of Agboogun whom he gave as a bride to Baganju. It was during the reign of Ogbogbomudu that a man known as Ojomu-Olumuse witnessed the practice of killing and eating bats at Use Ekiti. He discovered a cave close to Utaja where there are plenty of bats and initiated the practice of bat hunting in Idanre, which eventually evolved into a festival. Another cave, originally named Uwo Jisun with a retinue of bats was discovered by chief Laja. The name of the cave was later changed to Uwo Owa. Together, these two caves form the locus of frenetic activity by the young men of Idanre during the annual Osu Ise Festival, usually held in February.

6. Owa Agunmanyan Alajula’de

Ajula’de refers to his sword, reportedly given to him as a present from the Oba of Benin when he visited Benin as the first Oba of Idanre to do so. Supposedly, this Oba of Benin was his maternal brother.

7. Owa Amuwaro.

8. Owa Bogede.

9. Owa Sofin.

10. Owa Oganyeri (Aj’inamurobomaku)

He was driven from Idanre because of some malady, but was cured and returned to the throne and held power for many years before he died.

11. Owa Oluodo.

12. Owa Obojo.

13. Owa Olugharere.

14. Owa Resilebete.

15. Owa Elegbehoho.

16. Owa Ogedemeru.

17. Owa Orile.

According to historians, traditional cloth making started at Idanre during Owa Orile’s reign.

18. Owa Yiworo.

Alade Market was founded during his reign.

19. Owa Kulumo.

20. Owa Arowojoye.

During Owa Arowojoye’s reign, the people of Akure went to war against the people of Benin and Idanre became military allies with Benin to fight against Akure.

21. Owa Ajikansekun.

22. Owa Agunleye.

During the tenure of Owa Agunleye, Idanre fought small military skirmishes with the people of Ondo and also entered into an alliance with the people of Ilesha to defeat the Oyo people.

23. Owa Arubiefin I. Owa Arubiefin I came to the throne in the 19th Century experiencing the incursion of the British colonialists into western Africa. He reigned until 1912 during which time, a signed a peace treaty with the United Kingdom, Christianity was introduced, and the site of the Anglican Mission at Oke Idanre was granted.

24. Owa Gbolagbeye Arubiefin II.

According to the rules of succession, his brother, Aroleye Arubiefin was meant to become King but because the brother had become a Christian, which the leaders of the traditional religionist community disliked, Owa Gbolageye Arubiefin II was instead enthroned as king. The community leaders preferred Owa Gbolagbeye Arubiefin II as king because he maintained loyalty to the traditional religionists’ worship and practices.His reign witnessed sectarian conflict between the religionists and Christians, with the Christians suffering tremendous persecution.Owa Gbolagbeye Arubiefin reigned for only seven from 1913 to 1919 with the last four years marred by severe ill-health.The Native Court on the hills was established during his reign.

25. Owa Aladegbule Aroleye Arubiefin III.

The father of the present king (at December 2019), Owa Aroleye Arubiefin III enjoyed a long reign from 1919 to 1976. It was during his reign that the settlement at Ilutitun (now called Alade) was established in 1930.The indigenous peoples also descended from the old town of Oke Idanre down to the new town of Odode Idanre in 1934. Christianity expanded during his reign, schools were built, and the modernisation began in the two new settlements.The main source for Idanre written history, the ‘Intelligence Report on Idanre District,’ which was compiled by T.B Bovell-Jones was also compiled during his reign. This document remains the only written records on old Idanre discovered so far apart from the Colonial dispatches by Thomas Gilbert Carter KCMG.

26. Owa Frederick Adegunle Arubiefin IV (1976 – Present)

The Obaship institution with crown at Alade and Atosin began during his reign along with the expansion of the Oluship in other Idanre settlements.More administrative divisions were established by creating more quarters e.g. Yaba Quarter, Opa/Odole Quarter, and Eto Quarter.

  • Owa Agboogun led Idanre people from Utaja to Oke Idanre.

  • Owa Baganju, choses the site for the building of the old Palace at Oke Idanre.

  • Owa Beyoja successfully defended idanre territory against the invading Oyo Soldiers

  • Owa Jarugan, the son of Baganju

  • Owa Ogbogbomudu

  • Owa Agunmanyan is the first Owa of Idanre to visit Ado Bini

  • Owa Amuwaro

  • Owa Bogede

  • Owa Sofin

  • Owa Oganyeri(Ajinamurobo maku)

  • Owa Oluodo

  • Owa Obojo

  • Owa Olugharere

  • Owa Resilebete

  • Owa Elegbehoho

  • Owa Ogedemeru

  • Owa Orile

  • Owa Yiworo, Alade market was founded during his reign

  • Owa Kulumo

  • Owa Arowojoye

  • Owa Ajikansekun

  • Owa Agunleye

  • Owa Arubiefin I (1832 – 1912)

  • Owa Gbolagbeye Arubiefin II (1913 – 1919)

  • Owa Adegbule Aroloye Arubiefin III

  • Owa Dr. Frederick Adegunle Aroloye JP. OFR. (1976 – till date)

    YorubaRenaissance

The Brief History of Ijero-Ekiti

Oral history tells us that Oduduwa had EIGHT children. SEVEN (Onipopo of Popo, Onisabe of Sabe, Alara of Ara, Ajero of Ijero, Orangun of Oke-Ila, Owa Obokun Ajibogun of Ijesaland and Oranmiyan) by his “legal” wife, and one (Ooni) by his slave turned wife, named ORUNTO.

The first seven were sent out by their father to establish other kingdoms while Ooni the son of Orunto stayed behind to take care of their father and he inherited the throne of his father after his demise.

The people of Ijero Ekiti have settled in various places before the final settlement in the Ijero Kingdom. Their first movement was from Ile- Ife at a place called Ita Ajero (the quarter still exists in Ile-Ife till today) Their final settlement in the Ijero Kingdom which was precisely in the year 1312AD and the king who led them to the present Ijero Kingdom was called Owa-Ogbe.

While Ajero left Ile-Ife to the present Ijero kingdom, he met a family who also came from Ile-Ife called Olodo-Oye family and this family worships Obalufon Alayemore.

Some other families which he met includes Alapa family, Oloku family among others but due to the supremacy of Ajero, these families could not fight against him but rather submitted to his royalty. Presently, Owa-lodooye, one of these families is one of the the high chiefs of Ijero Ekiti.

YorubaRenaissance

 

The Brief history of Efon-Alaaye

 

 Oduduwa established his dynasty around 800 A.D. The first was Ife Oodaiye, Ile Owuro (the land of the most ancient days where the dawn was first experienced). Tradition tells us that this Ife ended as a result of a flood. The survivors formed the nucleus of the second Ife, Ife Ooyelagbo (Ife, the city of survivors) this existed until the arrival of elements from the east whose attempt to seize power led to a bloody struggle between the strangers led by Oduduwa and the aboriginies led by Obatala. Oduduwa conquered and founded Ile-Ife. 

Oduduwa the great progenitor of the Yoruba nation and the first Ooni of Ife was Oduduwa himself, followed by his surviving eldest son, Obalufon Ogbogbodirin. At the demise of Obalufon Ogbogbodirin, who was the second Ooni, the son, Obalufon Alayemoore became the third Ooni of Ife. During that time, his uncle Oranyan was on sojourn in Oyo after he had left Bini. On hearing about the demise of his brother, he decided to return to Ife and to avoid crisis in Ife, Obalufon Alayemoore decided to move out.

Along with some nobles, friends, priests, wives and so on, they settled in several locations before finally settling in Efon Alaaye at about 1040 A.D. after ÌJÌ-È̩MÍGÙN of ÌGBÓLÉ-AYÈ.

This was around the 10th century.After the demise of Oranmiyan, who was the fourth Ooni of Ife, Ife elders came to persuade Obalufon Alayemore to come back to Ife. So, he went back to Ife as the fifth Ooni.

But before leaving for Ife, he installed his eldest son, Odundun Orankun as the second Alaaye. Òdúdú-Ọ̀runkú, the great-grandson of Odùduwà was the second Alaayè of Èfòn. It was said that when Òdúdú-Ọ̀runkú was a little boy, Ọ̀ọ̀ni Ọbalúfòn Ógbógbódirin was fond of him and he often displays his affection towards him by letting him sit on his lap.

Consequently, at about 950 A.D., the second Ọ̀ọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀, Ọbalúfòn Ógbógbódirin carved out a territory named Ìráyè, the site of the present town of MODÁKẸ́KẸ́, and made his beloved son, Alayemore the overlord and the Aláyè of Ìráyè.

Whenever Aláyè play host to the Ọ̀ọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀, it is a customary practice for the Aláyè to sit on Ọ̀ọ̀ni’s lap. Similarly, whenever the Ọ̀ọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀ plays host to Aláyè – the Aláyè is not made to follow protocol at the palace of Ọ̀ọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀, he is given a free rein.

The fondness Ọ̀ọ̀ni extended to Aláyè appears to be a re-enactment of the past when the Aláyè was treated as a favorite child of Ọ̀ọ̀ni ÒGBÓGBÓDIRIN. 

 According to È̩fòn Tradition, the Kingdom had 12 sub-towns under the dominion of the Aláyè of Èfòn. There are three ruling houses in Efon Alaaye that normally produce the Oba in rotation. The ruling houses and the order of rotation are: – Ogbenuote, Obologun and Asemojo respectively.

Kingmakers are the six high Chiefs who are heads of six Quarters into which the town is divided. The six kingmakers are:-

High Chief Obanla of Aaye Quarter,

High Chief Obaloja of Obalu Quarter,

High Chief Peteko of Isaja Quarter,

High Chief Oisajigan of Ejigan Quarter,

High Chief Alaayo of Emo Quarter,

High Chief Ojubu of Ikagbe Quarter

Alaaye of Efon-Alaaye

The Brief History of Ikare.

Ikare was founded by Agba Ode an Ife prince who was one of the grand children of Oduduwa. He migrated from Ile Ife during the disaster period like other Yoruba princes with his Chiefs, like the Olona, the Olokoja, Akuko, Oloyinmo and so many others with members of his family.
He traversed various areas and eventually settled in Ikare based on instructions from Ifa. But when he was leaving, they were sharing the properties of their grand father, Oduduwa and when they were sharing the crowns, Agba Ode who was relatively young realised that he might not get out of this, so he went to Ile-Ife and picked one of the crowns.
Agba Ode settled at a place now known as Oke Iba, it is behind a porpular hill called Oke Owa Ale or Oke Baba wa, meaning the hill of our progenitor and that’s why at Ikare today, the indigenes are called “Ikare Omo Oloke Meji tako tabo”.
At that hilly place they noticed two significant things when they got there during the dry season. There was a brook on the hill which is still there today, and its called Omi Atan, and throughout that dry season the water never dries up. They also settled under a tree where there were weaver birds, a tree which we call Igi Akere.
Agba Ode and his entourage settled under this tree, the uniqueness of that tree was that Ikare derived its name-from the tree “Igi Akere”.
More than two hundred years after Agba Ode had settled down, Umar Etimigbo the ancestors of the present day Olukare migrated from Bida. They called him Umar “Etimigbo” which is an appellation because whenever they talk to him, he will tell them that he cannot understand and that was the reason they named him Etimigbo.
Umar Etimigbo met Owa Ale Orukusuku a great warrior.

Brief history of Emure-Ile.

HRM, Oba (King), Alayeluwa, Amugbayanwo, The Elemure of Emure.

Prince Fagbamila Obadudu was bidden by his father to look for a territory where he could settle with his own people. He was sent forth with blessings by the entire Oduduwa royal family as he left Ile-Ife.

Prince Obadudu was given the following paraphernalia of royalty – a Beaded Crown, a Sword (to win laurels in battle), Fern Leaves, Akoko Leaves, Atorin (cane), and a Giant Leather Fan made of Tiger Skin. The Fern Leaf is called Imu in Yoruba language and the name of the town was derived from the act of giving the Fern Leaves to Obadudu – Imu re re e o, meaning these are your Fern Leaves.

Prince Fagbamila journeyed to Oba-Ile after consulting Ifa oracle and settled there for nine years as a temporary abode. Obe-Ile, near Akure became another Emure transit town as some people were left behind by Prince Fagbamila, when he moved to settle at Igbo-Owa.

Igbo Owa means “the Forest of the King.” He finally arrived and settled in Igbo_owa in the year 1300 AD for about four decades. The descendants of Prince Fagbamila remained in Igbo-Owa town. Records showed that Emure people lived abundant lives and were prosperous in Igbo- Owa kingdom. However, after its tremendous expansion, between 1300 and 1771 AD, the Igbo-Owa Kingdom began to experience a decline. The surrounding towns and villages over which they wiedled power and dominion became too pwerful for the central kingdom to control.

The Princes were deployed as administrators over subordinate towns and villages to help in collection royalties and maintaining law and order.The Princes were deployed as administrators over subordinate towns and villages to help in collection royalties and maintaining law and order.

Attacks from Oba Ado, Bini (Benin Kingdom) drove them from the settlement and led to the fragmentation of the Igbo-Owa kingdom. Components of this great kingdom which later fragmented included Awo, Odo-Emure (now known as Odo-Emure Agbado). Other people settled in Ado-Ani (now called Idoani), Oba (now known as Oba Akoko), Ipeme, and a host of other towns. As the Emures departed from Igbo-Owa in their search for better life, they got to a habitable place, and the elderly ones felt it was commodious enough for them to settle there, since they were not strong enough to participate in a long trek, and promptly named it Emure-Ile, meaning they had ‘arrived home’. After settling the elderly people at Emure-Ile, the younger ones proceeded to a place called Emure Ijaloke, which is now known as Emure-Ekiti.

Ijaloke was formerly named Oke-Oko, a farm settlement for Igbo-Owa residents and it received the name ‘Ijaloke’ because a big fight broke out among the people farming at the settlement, and this was reported at Igbo-Owa as – ‘Ogun ja l’Oke Oko’ (there was a war at Oke-Oko). This was later grafted onto the settlement’s name, which then became known as Ijaloke.

It was in 1780 that Emures relocated to Emure Ijaloke from Igbo-Owa. They were led to the new site by Adumori Ogunragaboja, who became the first ruler of Emure Kingdom.

The cracks on the walls of the Igbo-Owa kingdom in 1770 led to the disintegration of Emure Kingdom as some of the people decided to elave the central kingdom to found a new place of abode. During the journey to a new settlement, a few of the elderly persons could not go further due to tiredness hence they declared that “they had reached home” which in Yoruba parlance means “ati de le.” The place where they settled then is the present Emure Ile.

The cracks on the walls of the Igbo-Owa kingdom in 1770 led to the disintegration of Emure Kingdom as some of the people decided to elave the central kingdom to found a new place of abode. During the journey to a new settlement, a few of the elderly persons could not go further due to tiredness hence they declared that “they had reached home” which in Yoruba parlance means “ati de le.” The place where they settled then is the present Emure Ile.

The Brief History Of CHIEF BALOGUN LANDUJI OSHODI TAPA of Eko

Chief Balogun Landuji Oshodi Tapa was an outstanding warrior and a statesman. During the reign of King Eshilokun, he immigrated to Lagos from Bida in what is now known as the Niger State. This was after he had lost his parents in a tribal war when he was only six years old. He put himself under the protection of the King as his servant in order to prevent himself from being taken and sold into slavery. The King in turn put him under the supervision of one of his trusted men, Fagbemi.

Some years later, one of the Portuguese merchants, a friend of King Eshilokun, asked the king to let two of his children accompany him to Portugal and he promised to bring them back. The King was very wary of this offer and he thought instead of risking the lives of any of his own children, he would offer two people loyal to him. Hence he chose Oshodi and Dada Antonio to go with the Portuguese merchant.

While the King thought he was protecting the interests of his own children, he was in fact denying them an opportunity that would have benefited them more in the future.

Oshodi and Dada Antonio went with the Portuguese merchant to America and they were later returned to the King after many years.

On arrival from America, Oshodi was employed by Messrs. G. L. Gaiser as a Commission Agent and Toll Collector. With the arrival of the ships of the Portuguese merchants, business flourished, and Oshodi’s commissions from sales increased and he eventually became a rich man. Oshodi never forgot the hands that fed him, so to speak; he continued to be loyal to the King and was made a chief solely responsible for looking after the King’s wives. He was the only one who could go into the Queen’s apartment to oversee repairs if the need arose.

After the death of King Eshinlokun, Chief Oshodi remained loyal to his children. He particularly cast his lot with Idewu Ojulari who succeeded his father. After the reign of Chief Idewu Ojulari, Kosoko, a son of Oshinlokun, was said to be the rightful heir to the throne, but he was an enemy of Chief Eletu Odibo, whose duty was to install and crown any new king. It was said at the time, that young Prince Kosoko had seduced Eletu Odibo’s would-be wife. In retaliation, Eletu Odibo used his powerful position to crown Oluwole as the next King of Lagos in 1836.

Kosoko and other descendants of King Eshilokun were not satisfied with the decision and were ready to show their resentment. They waged a war against King Oluwole and Chief Eletu Odibo. Kosoko and his warriors invaded Isale-Eko. The battle was fierce and prolonged but ended with a victory on the side of the king’s army. Kosoko fled to Whydah, realising the consequences of his action.

When King Oluwole died, Akitoye was crowned in 1841 as the next King of Lagos.

Conscious of the right of Kosoko to the throne, Akitoye justly decided to search for Kosoko his nephew, who had taken refuge in Whydah. He believed that he must enjoy his patronage while on the throne. Akitoye organised a search party under the command of bold and gallant Chief Oshodi. The rapidity with which the party achieved its success was directly related to the military might of Chief Oshodi.

Kosoko finally returned to Lagos with Chief Oshodi in a vessel belonging to a merchant called, Domingo.

Henceforth, Chief Oshodi worked to maintain peace between Kosoko and Akintoye, and eventually brought the two together on terms. The peace effort was thwarted by Chief Eletu Odibo who had employed all the persuasive words he could, to dissuade King Akitoye from bringing Kosoko back to Lagos. He believed that Lagos would not contain the two of them. For a while, he did all he could to create conflicts between them, but later left Lagos for exile in Badagry.

When a war broke out between King Akitoye and Kosoko, Chief Oshodi loyally pitched his tent with Kosoko, the son of Eshilokun, through thick and thin. Akitoye asked Eletu Odibo to return to Lagos with his warriors to fight on his side. Akitoye’s men led by Eletu Odibo were soundly defeated. Eletu Odibo was captured in an ambush and killed.

With the death of Eletu Odibo, the elders advised Akitoye to escape to his mother’s town in Abeokuta. When Kosoko heard about the plan, he detailed his war chief, Oshodi, to lay ambush for Akitoye, kill him, and bring his head before him. Akitoye was in fact caught by Oshodi in the Agboyi waters, but instead of killing him, he paid homage to him and his Lord and prayed for his safe journey and safe return.

Chief Oshodi returned to report to Kosoko that Akitoye had escaped by the use of a powerful charm which put them all to sleep when he was passing. Historians were not able to assign any reason for the treatment which Oshodi gave Akitoye when in fact he was on orders to bring his head to Kosoko. In 1845, Kosoko defeated Akitoye and ascended the throne. In the meantime, Chief Oshodi remained Kosoko’s “Abagbon” war chief.

While in exile, Akitoye appealed to the British Government for help to restore him to his throne. A war broke out; the British started to bombard Lagos, setting the town on fire. Kosoko’s defence under the command of Chief Oshodi was effective and modern by the international standard of the time. After nine days of consecutive serious military actions, the British fleet unleashed excessive gun power which resulted in the defeat of Kosoko’s fleet. Under this unfavourable condition, Kosoko had to flee to Epe with Chief Oshodi and his warriors on the night of the13th of August 1853.

Akitoye was brought back to Lagos by the British Consul and was restored as the King of Lagos. Akitoye died on the 2nd of September 1853, about two weeks after Kosoko and his men had fled. In the afternoon of September 3rd, 1853, his son, Dosunmu was formally installed as the King of Lagos.

Although the war seemed to have ended with Kosoko in exile, there were sporadic raids on Lagos from Epe; disturbing the peace and trade of the island. The raids caused the British Consul Campbell, the Elders, and White Cap chiefs of Lagos, to initiate a move to reconcile the warring royal relatives.

On the 26th of January 1854, a peace conference, historically known as Langbasa meeting, was held at Agbekin (Palaver Island) about four months after King Dosunmu’s coronation. The British Consul’s party included the Commander of HMS Plato with other officers under his command, and Kosoko’s party which included Chief Oshodi Tapa and Chief Onisemo Adeburusi of Epe. They came without Kosoko in about sixty canoes each containing forty men. King Dosunmu was represented by several white cap chiefs and war chiefs.

At the opening of this remarkable conference, the Epe people, led by Chief Oshodi Tapa expressed their strong desire to return to Lagos a to the British Consul and be at peace with their friends and relatives. Chief Oshodi proposed that Kosoko be allowed to return to Lagos and live as a private person.

The proposal was not agreeable to the Consul on the basis that two Kings could not rein in Lagos. As an appeasement, Chief Oshodi was offered to return alone as the Consul for the people of Epe, but he declined the offer and insisted on Kosoko’s return from exile. Several years later in 1862, Kosoko was allowed back to Lagos with his war chief, after signing a peace treaty negotiated with the British Consul by Chief Oshodi.

Governor Glover was very grateful for Chief Oshodi’s contributions to peace inLagos.

On their arrival to Lagos, Governor Glover sought permission from Aromire to give part of Epetedo to Chief Oshodi. For himself, his family, his followers, and servants who returned with him from Epe, he held the area under the native customary law of land tenure, subject to the native system of the devolution of land.

The palace of Oshodi is located in the centre of the area of land in Epetedo. The area is uniquely laid out into 21 compounds. Four of these compounds; Oshodi, Akinyemi, Ewumi, and Alagbede courts belong exclusively to Chief Balogun Oshodi’s extended family.

For the most notable and extraordinary role of Chief Oshodi in the restoration of peace to Lagos and his contribution to the Government of Lagos, he was presented by Governor Glover on the Lagos Race Course grounds with a sword from Mr. Cardwell, the Secretary of State to the British Government. The sword was inscribed “presented by the Government of Queen Victoria to Chief Tapa in commemoration of the loyal services rendered by him to the Government ofLagos”

With his background of having been to America, Oshodi did not miss the opportunity to educate his children. He solicited Governor Glover to educate one of his children in England. This child later assumed the surname of Oshodi-Glover.

Chief Balogun Oshodi Tapa died on 2nd of July1868 about six years after his return from exile in Epe, leaving forty-six surviving children. His body was laid to rest at the centre of Oshodi Street in Epetedo, Lagos. The descendants of Chief Oshodi constructed an imposing edifice at his burial site, as a monument to the memory of the renowned warlord, peacemaker, and statesman. This monument has been classified as a historic site by the Lagos State Government.

Olowo of Owo Palace

Owo has the largest palace in Africa which was declared a national monument by the federal government. The Olowo Palace had as many as 100 courtyards on 180 acres of land approximately 8 percent of the land mass of Owo. Each courtyard had a specific function and was dedicated to a particular deity. The largest, said to have been twice the size of an American football field, was used for public assemblies and festivals. Some courtyards were paved with quartz pebbles or broken pottery. Pillars supporting the veranda roofs were carved with statues of the king mounted on a horse or shown with his senior wife. 

Alaafin of Oyo Palace

The Oyo palace is one of the main cultural center of the city, where all cultural forms are widely practiced and stored.
The palace is decorated with works of art, murals and various forms of sculpture, including the posts of wood and carved paneled doors, symbolizing the status of wealth and royalty.

The palace of the Alaafin Oyo is one of the largest Yoruba royal residence and has the largest number of Kobis (corridors). This complex corridor system allows the Alaafin to move in without exiting to the outside. Within the complex, there are shrines of Sango, Obatala, Ogun and Imole.

Besides the Alaafin residence , and shrines , the complex also houses the palace ‘s throne room , offices, housing officials, the dwellings of the queens , the court , the room Aganju where confer the Oyes ( titles ) , the garden , the Akesan market , among other spaces .
The Oyo palace houses important works of art and antiques of the Yorubas. It is also the place where they are performed and traditional touches daily songs of praise and communication to the king, informing him about the external events of the palace . Touch is one of the most significant forms of communication culture of Oyo . Touch inside the palace is a real privilege and shows the continuation of the cultural practices of the Oyo Empire.
This palace is a great testimony to the architectural ingenuity of the Yoruba and their empire .

Ooni of Ife Palace

The Ooni of Ife Palace serves as both the residence and the court of the traditional ruler of Ife, the birthplace of the Yoruba race. This stately palace lies in the ancient city of Ife.

This was built. It is notable as the centre of Yoruba history and culture. Contains mythical objects and spots of historical significance

Legend has it that this location contains the spot where the first blacksmith vanished from earth, to continue his existence underground

The magnificent palace of the Ooni of Ife otherwise known as Ile Oduduwa, named after the first king of the Yoruba race. The palace is an in-depth reflection of ancient Ife because the palace existed alongside the city as far back as 500 BC.

It is a perfect symbol of power, authority and pride for all who trace their heritage to Ile-Ife. Even with the modernization of the palace, traditional and cultural part of it is still preserved.

The palace is a sacred place where you do not just indiscriminately wander. Many special rites and rituals must be performed before a new Ooni begins his residence in the palace.

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